The present article analyzes lexical innovations of French origin in the Russian literary language on materials of fiction, opinion journalism, as well as etymological, defining, and foreign dictionaries under well-defined criteria of foreign word extraction. Investigations of Russian and foreign linguistics dedicated to the study of language contacts offer a variety of criteria describing the functioning of foreign vocabulary in the Russian lexical system as the result of interaction of various manifestations of language contacts. The authors highlight the main principles and possibilities of using methods of corpus analysis in the process of studying language contacts in a historical perspective. The material of this research consists of the Gallicisms in the sphere of culinary and gastronomy that came to the Russian language at the end of the 18th-19th centuries and were recorded in numerous works of Russian literature. Diachronic analysis of their functional development using the methods of corpus linguistics makes it possible to determine and demonstrate some general and particular processes in the field of foreign language vocabulary: the development of the form and content of the loanwords, the periodization of their maximum and minimum occurrence, and the correlation of language data with extra-linguistic factors.Keywords: Russian language, French language, borrowing, foreign language vocabulary, functioning, corpus analysis.