The aim of the study is to provide a philosophical analysis of the irrationalist and rationalist philosophy of the Modern age. The research analyses irrationalistic and rationalistic philosophical directions, studies religious philosophy of the post-scholastic Modern age. The research begins with Lutheranism, then traces the philosophical views of the Enlightenment period and ends with rationalistic and irrationalistic philosophy of the middle and end of the 19th century. The main results of the research can be considered the following: a judgment on the deconstruction of scholasticity and the elimination of mysticism from religious consciousness as a factor in strengthening the influence of materialistic and atheistic philosophy and relativistic principles in religion; the predominance of interest in the Modern age philosophy in the intuitive cognition of faith and God. As a result of the research, the following conclusions are made: deconstruction of scholasticity in the 16th century entailed strengthening of relativistic principles in religious and religious-philosophical consciousness and diffusion of philosophical views like a mechanism of division of living organisms; a significant role in the justification of religious consciousness during the Modern age was played by religious intuition, which in the course of dialectical development created an antithesis in the form of religious phantasmagoria in the materialistic philosophy; elimination of mysticism from religious consciousness created the basis for strengthening the influence of atheistic philosophical directions.Keywords: Christianity, religion, philosophical directions, atheism, materialistic philosophy, deconstruction, rhizoma, pure reason, practical reason, morality.