The paper presents the comparative study of the macrostructure of the bilingual Russian-German and German-Russian dictionaries compiled in Germany in the 19th century. This research's relevance is determined by the lack of metalexicographic works, devoted to the detailed analysis of this issue. The subject of this study is the bilingual general alphabetical dictionaries. In the course of the research, we analyze these dictionaries with reference to their types and volume, structural parts, and principles of the language units' arrangement. The materials presented in this paper can be used as an empirical basis for further elaborating the history of the Russian-German and German-Russian lexicography. This work is meant for lexicographers and all specialists dealing with the Russian-German lexicography problems from a historical perspective.Keywords: Bilingual lexicography, Russian-German lexicography, German-Russian lexicography, macrostructure, Germany, 19th century.