Taking advantage of digital culture achievements on a daily basis, implementing many functions and capabilities of the Internet, using many practices necessary in a digital society, humanity faces a cognitive gap, which is one of the characteristics and problem fields of information and communication culture research. The study aims to analyze the features of the language and cognitive barriers perception by Internet technology users. Research methods: as a research method, we used the questionnaire method, which allows us to identify the features of users' ideas effectively about using the Internet. Research results: the article describes the peculiarity of the current stage in the development of gadgets’ and Internet technologies’ use; identifies the causes of the language barriers and cognitive gap and ways to overcome it. The authors determined that the active use of communication via the Internet was associated with its cheapness, compared with mobile communication, the ability to exchange photos and music. It is determined that communication via the Internet takes on new facets that people did not actively use at personal or mobile communication - the exchange of content. The study shows that learning becomes one of the significant opportunities that the Internet provides for many respondents. The article proves that one of the most common practices of using Internet resources are: online education, online banking, e-government (payment of fines, tax verification, doctor's appointment, ordering documents, certificates, putting children on the waiting list in educational institutions).Keywords: cognitive barriers, information and communication culture, digital transformation, Internet users, Language barriers.