E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 5 (9)
Volume: 5  Issue: 9 - 2021
1.Functioning of words formed from proper names in modern media discourse: psycholinguistic aspect
Tetiana Shynkar, Tetiana Levchenko, Olesia Skliarenko, Larysa Kardash
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.15679  Pages 1 - 13
The article deals with the functioning of the onim lexicon units in the language of the Ukrainian press at the beginning of the XXI century, as well as its appellation, that is, the transition from the class of proper names to the class of general ones. The most widespread thematic groups of onim lexicon units are defined, the main structural features of units derived from the names are outlined. The author also describes onim lexicon units, derived from the names of the representatives of the Ukrainian politics, historical figures and literary or mythical heroes, which became more active in the language of the Ukrainian press at the beginning of the XXI century. It has been found out that onim lexicon units, or propritives, are words with a specific semantic nature that is determined by the essence of their own names, pragmatical and emotional functional purpose; these are lexical units that belong to the extra-system speech phenomena.
It is investigated that onim lexicon units are most often used in the thematic groups “Characteristics of the representatives of the authorities,” “Public and political events,” “Ukrainian and Russian relations,” “Military and war sphere” etc. It is traced that the law of the language energy saving has a great influence on the development of the language of modern printed mass media in the second decade of the XXI century. The desire of journalists to transmit the maximum amount of information, while applying the minimum language means, causes the emergence of new compression forms – onim lexicon units. This tendency reflects the author’s desire to avoid complex forms of nomination and polysemy, to use the expressive means of the language to present information; to submit information quickly and accurately, to reduce complex names.

2.Formation of demanded digital competences by the would-be specialists
Nelly Savelyeva, Uvarina Natalia, Natalia Pakhtusova, Savchenkov Alexey, Pyrkova Tamara
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.45762  Pages 14 - 17
The rapid development of digital technologies and the information society necessitated the implementation of cardinal changes and innovations in the information sphere, exacerbating the problem of training a specialist who is ready for learning and development throughout his life, which exists in an information-open society. The widespread digitalization of all spheres of the economy of modern society has a significant impact on the requirements for a future specialist, who must have a high level of digital culture, formed by a system of professional knowledge, skills and abilities with continuous consolidation and transformation of them into competencies, readiness for constant replenishment and updating of knowledge, acceptance non-standard creative solutions. The system of forming key competencies of employees has become one of the priority conditions for the creation and effective functioning of the innovative economy of the Russian state. The active and widespread introduction of modern science-intensive technologies leads to an increase in the requirements of the state and society for the qualifications of university graduates, the level of their intercultural competence, and readiness to master new approaches to professional activity. These factors explain the close attention of scientists and specialists from different branches of knowledge and areas of pedagogy, psychology, public administration, sociology, informatics, etc., to the problems of intercultural training of future specialists in the context of globalization.

3.Variable educational models for the development of foreign students’ professional-communicative competence in the Russian-language business communication
Nina Navichna Romanova, Tatiana Petrovna Skorikova, Irina Olegovna Amelina, Tatiana Viktorovna Kovaleva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.56833  Pages 18 - 29
The article is devoted to the problem of modernizing the content and forms, strategies and tactics of linguocommunicative training of foreign students in the Russian-language business communication. It is noted that the strategic task of teaching Russian as a foreign language (RFL) in Russian higher education is the formation and improvement of the professional-communicative competence of specialists (in our case, in the field of economics and management), and the main tactical task is the actualization of all components of the named competence, especially language and speech subcompetences. To solve these problems, the authors propose variable educational models that meet the main criteria for the validity of a linguo-methodological product: 1) reliance on scientific knowledge of the mechanisms for the formation of verbal skills using foreign language tools, 2) taking into account certain pedagogical conditions for the implementation of foreign language learning, 3) reflection of empirically established communicative needs and cognitive preferences of a particular contingent of students, 4) use of the methodological approach that best matches the above stated factors. The proposed educational models are “built” into the discipline of RFL: as a specialty subject course based on the author’s textbook on business Russian with authentic audio supplement teaching aids; as a professional module of the pre-university course in RFL, based on the material of Internet resources on economic topics; as a professional module of the main university course in RFL based on the author’s textbook, using the authentic material of feature films / TV series as a didactic source.

4.Structural and Content Parameters of the Model of Teaching Russian as a Foreign Language: the Stage of Speech Adaptation
Raisa Bozhenkova, Natalya Bozhenkova, Tamara Kalichkina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.57855  Pages 30 - 40
The article presents a new approach to the formation of basic skills of producing/transmitting/retransmitting information in inofons at the initial stage of learning Russian as a foreign language (RFL) necessary for further implementation of competent and effective verbal interaction accounting for the ethnocultural specifics of the country of the target language, various communication needs, and sociolinguocultural features of a communication situation.
The initial stage of teaching RFI includes the stage of speech adaptation the organization of which is described as a multidimensional formation at the intersection of several structural and content components – cultural, psychological, pedagogical, and social. Based on the synergetic characterization of all constituents of the stage of speech adaptation, the content, principles, and methods of the implementation of educational material demonstrating a convergent approach to teaching and allowing one to increase the efficiency of mastering RFL are presented.
The methodological concept of the work is based on combining the methods of complex theoretical description and socio-pedagogical, observational, and pivotal and diagnostic research extrapolated to the real-life educational process of the preparatory faculty. Practical implementation of the described methodology allows formulating the parameters of the model for teaching RFL at the stage of speech adaptation that are to become the basis for creating a textbook of RFL.
The results of the conducted study and the approbation of a linguomethodical strategy demonstrate that the proposed multidimensional model will ensure the dynamic development of inofons’ cognitive and creative self-learning ability which, in turn, will serve as the basis for the formation of a multilingual and multicultural personality.

5.Functioning of Vocatives in Russian and Burmese: Comparative Analysis in the Context of Speaking Etiquette and Linguodidactics
Natalia Ivanovna Gabova, Svetlana Kharitonovna Khvan, Myint Htun Naing
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.58751  Pages 41 - 49
The paper discusses particularities of the functioning of vocatives in Russian and Burmese in the context of speaking etiquette and linguodidactics. Seven groups of vocatives are considered in detail and compared. The paper analyses vocatives related with the evaluative function as one of expressive means of speaking, and focuses on the syntactic role of vocatives. It reveals similarities and differences in the use of vocative formulas in compared languages associated with differences in national character as well as with specificity of family and social relations.

6.Teaching presentation skills for engineering students: analysis of common mistakes
Anastasia Zabrovskaya
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.64325  Pages 50 - 58
The skill of making and giving a presentation, both in native and foreign languages, is undoubtedly one of the most important communication skills which students acquire at university, and then apply in their career for improving personal and professional status. The presentation skill includes a rich diversity of skills young specialists are expected to develop and master: they not only learn how to represent themselves, explore and cover the topic of their scientific research, talk about their scientific developments and achievements, share the message with their target audience. They also learn how to successfully deal with the Internet space, sort resources by relevance, analyze the information received and structure it, make up their own texts. When students start honing their presentation skills in the first year, they do not quite clearly understand what exactly preparation for a presentation means, they have a vague idea how to structure their report, start and finish it, what tools they may need to attract the attention of the target audience. Most students have to overcome psychological stress of performing in public. Moreover, modern generation of students, the generation of digital natives, who are accustomed to the perception of ready-to-use information and are often unable to process texts efficiently and independently, think critically and analyze, draw conclusions, seems to have problems in grasping the essence of the presentation skill. It is the role of a teacher to help students improve skills that will eventually lead to students' ability to speak in public with an interesting, thought-provoking, well-organized speech. This study attempts to summarize the experience in this field of teaching, and discover common mistakes of both teachers and students in training the presentation skill.

7.Development of German Island Dialects In Russia (The Case Study of Dialects of The Russian Germans in Kirov Region, Russia)
Olga Baykova, Olga Skurikhina, Vladimir Banin, Anna Gorokhova, Andrey Grachev
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.68585  Pages 59 - 63
The relevance of this work lies in the fact that the specificity of the formation and development of German island dialects in Russia, in particular in the Kirov region, is associated with the problem of studying linguistic stability in a complex imbalanced linguistic situation and interference. The aim of this work is to identify the development features of German island dialects in a foreign language environment. The following methods have been used to achieve this goal: field methods in collecting linguistic material; method of sociolinguistic questioning and interviewing of respondents; statistical and comparative analysis when correlating the studied dialect systems with other German dialect systems, with the Russian language and Russian regional dialects. It should be noted that the German island dialects of the Kirov region have peculiar linguistic features, including new vocabulary units, as well as involving the language of the surrounding majority

8.Information technology and its role in developing the Arabic language department at the Northern Border University
Hoda Ibraheem Al Nabawe, Yaser Mohammad Al Sawy
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.68916  Pages 64 - 70
The study aimed to realize the influencing role of information technology on the educational process for students of the Arabic Language Department at the Northern Border University, where researchers tried to use the analytical descriptive method on a random sample of 85 students of both gender, through the use of the main measurement tool (the questionnaire), which was judged, tested and distributed. And analyzing them according to 16 measurement statements, and the study reached 5 categories of students 'answers, ranging from very high to very low, and the study recommended the need to spread the culture of using information technology and encourage faculty members to exchange knowledge with students through the means of information technology in addition to the generalization of language laboratories. For conversation, listening, and increasing the use of electronic information sources through the Saudi Digital Library.

9.The Development of Moral Dilemma Illustrated Stories for Elementary School Students
Risa Wismaliya, Kama Abdul Hakam, Rahman Rahman, Muhammad Solehuddin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.82435  Pages 71 - 87
This research aimed to develop moral dilemma illustrated stories for elementary school students. To construct an effective illustrated story, it employed a type 4D research and development approach. The subjects of this research comprised of 30 fourth-grade elementary school students, six teachers, and three experts in fine arts, language, and moral education. Data were collected through test instruments, observation, interviews, and documentation. An interactive model was utilized in the qualitative method while the N-gain test was implemented in the quantitative method. According to preliminary research, teachers and students needed media that could help them improve moral judgment by creating media that children enjoy (illustrated stories) and incorporating them with a moral dilemma. Illustrated story development refers to the aspects of content, language, design, and media. The results of the illustrated story product testing reported that the value of Asymp. Sig. for a post-test score of 0.000 <0.05 or H0 is rejected. Accordingly, there is an effect of using moral dilemma illustrated stories in each learning group on students' moral considerations. As a result, it can be concluded that the developed moral dilemma illustrated story is suitable for use by teachers and students in elementary schools to increase moral considerations.

10.Transadaptation Strategies in Dubbing a Humorous Hybrid-Text Type Advert into Arabic – Is Vernacular the Panacea?
Rashid Yahiaoui
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.82687  Pages 88 - 101
Transadapting/transcreating advertisements into distant languages and cultures is a challenging undertaking as the content of most advertisements is very culturally laden. What exacerbates the translator’s task is the fact that certain texts are a mixture of text types and genres.
This paper’s primary objective is to investigate the strategies employed to deal with an array of issues that arise in the dubbing of a humorous hybrid-text type for dubbing into Arabic. An audiovisual advertisement, which is an amalgam of humour, scientific jargon, and cultural/religious references, is used as a case study.
A secondary objective of the study was to test the translation of humorous passages, often linked to human anatomy and Homer’s blunt remarks. Verbal humour is one of the most difficult aspects in audiovisual translation, and some even consider it ‘untranslatable’ (Raphaelson-West, 1989).
Leaning on Skopos Theory, participants’ translations were analysed to account for the decision-making process to produce functionally adequate versions for the Arab audience. A Think Aloud Protocol, in the form of question prompts, was used as a tool to gather part of the data, as it was key to gauging participants’ own agency in terms of decision making in the translation process and in validating these decisions. Participants were given the option of transadapting the advert into Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) or in one of its vernaculars. Arabic, being a multi-glossic language (Elgibali, 1988), allows for wider testing opportunities to establish better ways to translate any text type or genre.
The results show that the overwhelming majority (80%) of the translators opted for using Arabic vernacular, and 90 % preferred the domestication (adaptation) macro-strategy, with cultural substitution as a micro-strategy gaining the lion share in transferring humour into Arabic vernacular; which proved to be the better language variety in transferring humour.

11.Search for centre in an uncertain world: A study of V. S. Naipaul’s A House for Mr. Biswas
Tribhuwan Kumar, Mehrunnisa M. Yunus
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93763  Pages 102 - 109
The search for identity, root, and recognition is the purpose and motto of every individual living in this world. The intrinsic integrity of a human being has divine value, and the dignity of the human being is the cornerstone of a morality and culture. In V. S. Naipaul’s novel A House for Mr. Biswas, the protagonist Mr. Mohun Biswas struggles throughout his life for stability and identity in his life. Here, The desire for an own house is equated here with the assertion of one's own identity regardless of other issues, worldly materials and moral support. One can find continuous refrain from Mr. Biswas mouth: “I am going to get a job of my own. And I am going to get my own house too” (Naipaul, 1958). A close reading of this novel reveals that it deals with poor and dispossessed characters, marginalized men and women who strive to find a place to live and have their own life. They are emigrant Indians compelled by circumstance to find a place in alien Trinidad to live that feels like home. In particular, it shows Mr. Biswas' constant battle to have his own house in which he can act and think in his own way. The house thus becomes a sign of individual identity, unfettered by external controls and compromises.

12.Greeting etiquette: verbal and non-verbal communication
Afag Aghayeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.97059  Pages 110 - 118
At ancient times people meeting each other almost performed private dance. They were obliged to do it. In Azerbaijan greeting formula were met also in ancient book made from a cow skin (in the book “Dede-Korkud”). Then some meanings of greeting etiquettes are explained in the article.
The habit of greeting with hand inherited from ancient times. Formerly, people stretched out their hands forward to great each other and showed their palm. They wanted to say that, they didn’t hide any arm and stone in their hands. Romans squeezed each other’s hands from the region of wrist. Because, it was a habit to hide dagger in the sleeve of shirt and dress in the empire of Roma. The gesture of squeezing the wrist is substituted for gesture of handshake in the modern period. That greeting gesture was started to be used widely at the end of XX century. That habit belonged only to males until recently. Handshake means greeting and saying goodbye in any business environment in the most of the European people and in America. Gradually, this method is using in different events. Today, handshake with a woman is absolutely natural. Teachers in New-York colleges compel their students and pupils not to open their palms when they are greet each other. Because, they may infect each other with disease viruses, microbes, flu (especially, Coronavirus infection: A.A.) and other infectious diseases. According to teachers, gently touching the front part of the fist is the safest method of greeting. We see from movies that, this habit is seen in some former students.

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