E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 5 (7)
Volume: 5  Issue: 7 - 2021
1.Women-related Ideologies in Egyptian Arabic and American English Proverbs and Sayings: A Cross-cultural Linguistic Analysis
Waheed M. A. Altohami
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.87059  Pages 1 - 17
This study aimed at investigating the nexus among language, gender, and culture as espoused in two corpora of Arabic and English proverbs and sayings. It addressed the cultural affinities and differences regarding women's representations in these proverbs. Based on theoretical insights from Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis and Conceptual Metaphor Theory, the study methodically operated at three stages: (1) it calculated the frequency of Arabic and English proverbs and sayings that represented women in terms of the various social roles ascribed to them (e.g. wife, mother, daughter, etc.); (2) the major themes and ideologies related to women in the Egyptian and American cultures are revealed and compared; and (3) the source domains supporting the projection of such themes and ideologies are cognitively explained and discursively justified. Findings showed that, firstly, owing to cultural discrepancy regarding the concept of extended family, not all the social roles associated with women are covered in the English corpus. Secondly, women are generally represented more negatively in the Arabic corpus. Thirdly, both corpora shared particular source domains to control the public mind regarding gender power relations. Finally, women's negative representations are manipulated to maintain women's suppression, marginalization, and stigmatization and to moralize gender hegemony.

2.The Development History of Tense Category in Turkic Languages
Rena Huseynova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.94547  Pages 18 - 23
The history of the development of the tense category in Turkic languages is considered in the article. The main purpose of the research conducted within the article is to study the tense category in Turkic languages from the point of view of historical development and to analyze the tense category in diachronic plan on the basis of materials of different Turkic languages. For the first time in the article, based on the materials of the Altai, Turkish, Tungus-Manchurian, Azerbaijani, Kazakh, Tatar and other Turkic languages the tense category is investigated in a comparison. The comparative, historical-comparative and typological methods of linguistics were used in the research. In order to shed light on the degree of development of the research topic and to justify its relevance, the scientific and theoretical literature is also studied extensively and comprehensively.
As the principles of concrete classification of tense forms in the grammar of Turkic languages have not yet been determined, it confirms the relevance of the research. In the article, as a result of research based on the materials of the Turkic languages, the author concludes that the forms of tense observed in the stages of historical development of the Turkic languages have more modal shades. This is due to the fact that they are closely related to the aspect category. The analysis of the scientific-theoretical literature presented during the research and the obtained scientific results may have special importance for Turkologists, researchers conducting research on the history of language.

3.Identifying Oral Strategies Used by EFL Students at the Northern Border University (NBU)
Osama Hassanein Sayed
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.49389  Pages 24 - 34
This study aimed to identify the type and the frequency of speaking strategies used by EFL students at the Northern Border University (NBU). Descriptive analytical method was used in this study. The study sample included two hundred ninety (290) undergraduate students (males & females). Participants were selected by means of cluster random sampling from the colleges in three clusters (science colleges, health colleges, and humanity colleges). To achieve the study objectives, a self-report questionnaire was used to elicit information about speaking strategies from the study participants. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the present study through using the latest version of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Results revealed that NBU students are not active strategy users. Their overall use of speaking strategies is medium. Significant differences were detected between male and female students in all speaking strategy subcategories in favor of females. In light of the study findings, pedagogical implications as well as some recommendations for needed strategy instruction and suggestions for further research were discussed.

4.Cognitive approach to opposites: Case of Turkish hayat “life” and ölüm “death”
Sergii V. Sorokin, Irina Katsion
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.38039  Pages 35 - 45
It is widely accepted that the oppositional concept pairs and their inner semantic relations are useful for deeper understanding the language as well as the basic principles of its speakers’ cognition. The aim of this study is to investigate the cognitive nature of oppositions in language through the semantic approach, in particular life and death concepts in Turkish. The two extended semantic fields for each concept were created. Having analyzed all the collected items and therefore deduced the hierarchy of the cognitive features of each concept separately, the two fields were imposed. It was found that the fields have the unique coincidence in a number of the same features (movement; a set of inseparable dialectical units; has an impact on the person; physiological process) implemented in different ways. This indicates that there is a possibility to investigate the estimated relations with the other concepts established on these features and suggests the opportunity to describe other oppositional units in the framework of any language with this methodology.

5.Exploring the Conventions of Chinese Scholars Writing Research Article Abstracts for International vs National Journals in Applied Linguistics: From the Perspective of Move Structure and Evidentials as Metadiscourse
Xiaowei XI, Chanika Gampper
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.47354  Pages 46 - 57
With the widespread use of English as the international Lingua Franca of research, scholarship, and academic publishing, researchers around the world are now inevitable to write an English abstract irrespective of the language used in a full-length article. In this study, we attempted to illuminate the rhetorical conventions of mainland Chinese scholars’ abstract writing in different contexts of publication from the perspective of move structure and evidentials as metadiscourse, in case Chinese novice researchers encounter those possible difficulties in their future research writing. By analysing the self-compiled corpus of 150 abstracts (50 English and 50 pairs of English-Chinese) written by Chinese scholars in international and national journals in applied linguistics, several propensities of their abstracts’ writing conventions were detected. One salient trend is the rhetorical structures particular in move Introduction, which is peculiarly constructed using the adjunct structure (e.g., based on…) as the evidential marker by Chinese scholars in national journals. Another one is the dominant tenancy of adopting adjunct structures in both Chinese and English abstracts in national journals, while Chinese scholars in international journals tend to take advantage of every type of evidentials. Finally, these findings were cautiously explained from various angles (e.g., L1 influence or disciplinary feature). This exploratory study shed light for Chinese or other EFL novice researchers in writing English abstracts for publications in different contexts, and a few pedagogical implications for EAP courses or FL writing also have been discussed.

6.Common communicative failures in learning German
Khrystyna Dyakiv, Maryana Yaremko, Nataliia Bober
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.76993  Pages 58 - 67
The article analyzes communicative deviations that occur during the communication between German native speakers and non-native speakers, particularly Ukrainians. Despite existing intercultural and sociolinguistic studies, the analysis of language specificity that causes communicative deviations, failures and misunderstandings remains relevant and understudied. The purpose of this article is to identify and explore the German language peculiarities that cause misunderstandings in communication for non-native speakers, in particular Ukrainian speakers, and offer the algorithm for the representatives of different ethnic communities to help them avoid and resolve possible conflicts given the study of German as a foreign language. The status of the concept of communicative deviation in intercultural communication under conditions of insufficient communicative competence is determined in this article. The study uses the term communicative deviation in favor of a generalized term, a broad concept of linguistic, speech and communicative deviations in dialogic speech, in particular between native German speakers and non-native speakers. The empirical research was based on the speech activity of Ukrainian students during classes at the Department of German Studies and Translation (levels B2–C1) of Ivan Franko National University of Lviv in 2019–2020 academic years and definitions from the Universal Dictionary of German Duden, in addition to the materials reflected in textbooks and teaching manuals as well as from authentic German-language sources. Communicative deviations are identified and analyzed in phonological, lexical, syntactic and pragmatic aspects.

7.Political Non-verbal Discourse and Lying Detection Techniques for Psycholinguistic Purposes: A Diagnostic Perspective
Mohammad Awad Al Dawoody Abdulaal, Mohamed Ali Mohamed Kassem
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.12979  Pages 68 - 78
The aim of this research study is to employ body gestures as a non-verbal means of communication to clarify the psychological aspects of George W. Bush’s character. Bush’s character is chosen for being highly controversial, having received the lowest approval rating in 2008 and the highest approval rating after the September 11 attacks. To attain this aim, a psycholinguistic approach is adopted and three research questions are raised: (a) what are the psycholinguistic interpretations of Bush’s body language? (b) which body gestures are frequently used by Bush while delivering his speeches? and (c) what can body gestures reveal about George W. Bush’s character? The main results of this research study can be summed up in the following points. (1) There are some body gestures used by Bush while delivering his speeches, including (a) excessive blinking, (b) lip licking, (c) stiff controlled hand gestures following natural excessive ones, (d) finger clasping, (e) blushing somber face, (f) palm – down thrust when shaking hands, and (g) closed eyes with crow’s feet, and open eyes with visible bottom teeth. (2) The body gestures mentioned in (a), (b), (c) revealed that a deceptive message was being delivered. (3) Bush happily employed palm – down thrust more than the palm- up thrust because of feeling more superior than the recipient. (4) Bush had two types of smiles: fake and genuine. The genuine smiles were given to those whom he could dominate and control, such as some of the Arab and Western presidents and officials.

8.Formation of the Concept of “Azerbaijani Language”
Aysel Nizami Garibli
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.90958  Pages 79 - 85
The research is devoted to the history of the formation of the concept of “Azerbaijani language” and aims to identify the stages of “clarification” of the concept, which covers a period of about a thousand years. Research shows that the concept of “Azerbaijani language” directly depends on the degree of differential perception of this reality, in other words, its cognitive nature, because it reflects the reality of the specific ethnic (national) language expressed by it. Therefore, throughout the study, the language reality of the concept of “Azerbaijani language” at different historical stages (with socio-cultural, structural and literary-normative features) and how to express this concept, i.e. with what linguonyms (for example, “Turkish language” or “toponym + Turkish language” or “Azerbaijani language”) is studied in interaction. And in this case, the positions of both “internal”, i.e. native speakers, and “foreign”, i.e. authors from other nations (for example, Arab, Persian, Russian, other Turkic peoples) are taken into account. The first aspect that determines the relevance of the topic is that a number of scientific and socio-political sources are skeptical of the linguonym “Azerbaijani language” and support the idea of calling it “Azerbaijani Turkish” or even “Azerbaijani (Azeri) dialect of Turkish”.

9.The Influence of Internet Communication on the Normative Base of the Modern Russian Language in the Aspect of Linguistic Methodology
Nina Navichna Romanova, Olga Alexandrovna Zhilina, Tatiana Petrovna Skorikova, Roza Ahmetkhadievna Kamalova, Svetlana Anatolievna Kurbatova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.26213  Pages 86 - 95
The article provides a linguo-methodological analysis of the dynamic processes in the normative base of the modern Russian language, occurring under the influence of Internet communication and having a negative impact on the foundations of the culture of speech among students of Russian universities, which actualizes the need for their teaching in the disciplines of the speech cycle ("Russian language and the culture of speech", "Russian language of business communication", etc.). The knowledge of normative oral and written speech is an integral component of the professional and communicative competence of future specialists as active users of network information technologies. In this regard, the influence of the slang element, in particular the "grunge" style, on the normative base of the modern Russian language that characterizes mass Internet communication is described in detail. Examples from the practice of communication in social networks demonstrate a decrease in the level of speech culture, linguistic and cognitive deformations in the structure of the language personality of Internet users. It is argued that in speech studies, the use of such examples as "arguments against the contrary" helps to neutralize this negative trend and motivates students to improve their general and speech culture.

10.Verbal Collocations in Arabic Lexicons
Abeer Obeid Al Shbeil
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.12754  Pages 96 - 105
The researcher established the work in this paper by relying on the lexical meaning of both "word" and "collocation," then the resracher linked between the lexical and idiomatic meaning of those terms.The researcher also defined the most important terminologies that can be seen through the core of this paper, namely: tightness, co-occurancy, calcification, contradictory, and others. Then the researcher examined how the ancient Arab scholars touched the terminologies related to the modern world and she found many references to it without direct naming, especially in Asrar al-Balagha wrote by Jurjani,and Kashaf Istilahat al-funun wrote by Thanvi; this necessitated clarification of some types of collocations used among the Arabs, such as linguistic traits, common sayings, compound structures, and linguistics.On the practical side, the researcher adopted "Majma‘ al-amthāl" written by Maydani and Asas al-Balagha written by al-Zamakhshari, because each of them represents a tendency in linguistic thought and another different approach.

11.Functional linguistic aspects of brand communications in marketing discourse
Elena N. Malyuga, Alina A. Minaeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.71542  Pages 106 - 110
The study looks into the functional linguistic features of brand communications in the English language in order to investigate the specifics of marketing discourse which examples can be evidenced in the language of corporate social media networks. Study material covers excerpts from publicly available Twitter and Instagram posts analyzed in terms of the brand communication techniques used. The relevance of this study is due to a lack of coverage of the functional linguistic aspects of marketing discourse, whereas brand communication plays a prominent role in the development of not just market relations in general, but also of culturally marked stereotypes and social values. The study concludes that marketing discourse is marked by mandatory bilateral orientation, and the most common functions of brand communication within this type of discourse are the phatic, representative and appellative functions fulfilled through a variety of stylistic means. The functional linguistic analysis ultimately highlighted the brands’ focus towards incorporating in their identity the image of friendly relations guided by trust, reliability and care.

12.The Challenges of Literary Translation for University Students: A Cultural Perspective of Saudi Undergraduates.
Abdullah Bin Towairesh
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93265  Pages 111 - 120
The challenges facing Saudi EFL students enrolled in literary translation courses are compounded by the diglossic nature of the society in which they live. The difficulties associated with using Standard Arabic, in addition to other cultural and pedagogical factors, have been examined in this paper to identify the most pressing concerns for students and to outline the biggest obstacles. The goal is to launch a discussion about the different remedies to these issues, and the possibility of measuring the effectiveness of the proposed solutions. The data used in this study were collected by organizing focus groups, analyzing students’ translations, and recording the instructor’s observations over an extended period, covering three academic semesters. The qualitative analysis of the data reveals a range of challenges facing students, and presents the basis for several suggested changes to this course. The challenges include language proficiency weaknesses in both English and Standard Arabic, lack of familiarity with the literary style, and skepticism about the relevance of this course to the program. The paper concludes with several recommendations and suggestions that aim at improving students’ achievements in this course, and that can be applied to other translation students facing the same circumstances around the world.

13.Effects of form-focused instruction on EFL Learners’ Academic writing Skills
Alinur Mohammed Ahmed
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03779  Pages 121 - 127
Learner centered instruction is very crucial to enhance students’ language skills and their Participation in the teaching learning process. Hence, the purpose of this research was to examine the effect of form-focused instruction on students’ academic writing skills. The research was designed through a quasi-experimental research design. The participants were 59 Blue Nile University-college students who were selected through random sampling techniques in which 29 students were assigned into the experimental group and 30 students in control group. The data were gathered through pre and post-tests, and analyzed through independent sample t-test. Thus, the data indicated that there was a significant statistical difference between students who were instructed through form-focused instruction and students who were instructed through the conventional approach. The students who were instructed through form-focused instruction outperformed in their academic writing skills better than the control group. Additionally, the data indicated that the instruction contributed to improve task achievement, coherence and cohesion, lexical resources and grammatical accuracy academic writing skills. Finally, the findings implied that foreign language academic writing teachers should consider form-focused instruction while teaching academic writing skills.

14.The Sociolinguistics of English Instant Messaging in Egypt: A study based on corpus analysis and questionnaire responses
Hasnaa Abdelreheem
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.26234  Pages 128 - 138
This paper investigates the linguistic characteristics of English in the Instant Messaging (IM) discourse as one of the most common Computer-mediated Communication modes in Egypt where English is considerably used. It also aimed to explore the reasons for the preference of English to Arabic in certain contexts, types of English errors, contexts of English and Arabic use, age of users, addressees, and purposes/functions of code-switching in English-Arabic discourse. Two sources of data are involved: a corpus of 30 IM conversations by 60 interlocutors and responses to a survey by a group of 49 participants (including some of the conversation providers). Findings of both qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis indicated that English in Egypt is used as an interactive medium of communication among Egyptian professionals, students and younger generations in general, regardless of their English proficiency levels, in both formal and informal contexts for various purposes. Moreover, IM English used by Egyptians is generally mixed with Arabic, and this code-switching between English and the varieties of Arabic occurs in many contexts to fulfill different functions. Details of frequency of using Arabic with different types of interlocutors, and of the varieties and forms of Arabic used are provided in the discussion.

15.Development of foreign language competence among higher education students in a blended learning environment
Maryna Velushchak, Tetiana Kravchenko, Kateryna Havrylenko, Tetiana Mykhailenko, Larysa Sokolovska
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.37431  Pages 139 - 145
The circumstances of active implementation of a blended learning format at all educational levels require increased motivation and advancement of the competences learned by students of higher education institutions. Such statement equally applies to foreign language competence, which is one of most relevant skills to the future professional activity of international relations specialists. In considering this, the Ukrainian higher education institutions conducted a study on the development of foreign language competence of higher education students in a blended learning environment. The purpose of the article is to develop and empirically establish the effectiveness of the author's model of foreign language competence development among higher education students in a blended learning environment.
The study involved the development, implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the author's model of foreign language competence development among higher education students in a blended learning environment. The participants of the study were students of higher education institutions: HEI 1, HEI 2, HEI 3, who majored in the following specialties: international activities, international relations. The participants were 1st, 3rd and 5th year students. A total of 138 students were interviewed (68 from the experimental and 70 from the control group).
The study confirmed that the implementation of the method of organizing the formation of foreign language competence among higher education students, which requires an optimal combination of blended learning with modern digital tools and the professional orientation of foreign language training in the system of higher education institutions, helps advance foreign language competence among higher education students.

LookUs & Online Makale