E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 5 (6)
Volume: 5  Issue: 6 - 2021
1.A Slang Word as an Object of Lexicography
Anastasia Nikolaevna Elizarova, Tatyana Valeryevna Leontyeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.63626  Pages 1 - 5
The article is devoted to the lexicography of the slang word. The emphasis is placed on the distinctive representations of jargon in jargon dictionaries and in mixed dictionaries that combine words from different linguistic subsystems. It is reported about the preparation of the new thematic explanatory dictionary of the latest vocabulary, dedicated to the vocabulary of unity and enmity. It is noted the publication will include words from modern youth jargon. It is noted the publication will include words from modern youth jargon. The article pays attention to one of the aspects of the dictionary - the principles of developing the description of jargon units. It is said the specificity of a dictionary entry is due to the belonging of the characterized word or expression to a certain variety of the national language, in this case, jargon. The components of the structure of the dictionary entry are commented. The authors believe that when lexicography of jargonisms, there is a real need for scientists to turn to the carriers of the jargon, since linguistic reflection can reveal to the researcher significant details of the interpretation of a linguistic fact, the pragmatics of its use in speech. The necessity of abandoning the use of jargon and colloquial units in the preparation of the definition of a jargon word is stated. The authors argue that the zone of equivalents and the reference zone in the structure of a dictionary entry are of great importance in the lexicography of a slang word, since embedding a word in a number of close, opposite or otherwise related words is the subject of a separate study that can reveal the features of the systemic organization of vocabulary and, in addition to among other things, to establish relationships between linguistic facts from different language subsystems.

2.Russian Spiritual Poems as a part of Historical heritage of the Serbian and Russian spiritual lexis
Daliborka Maryanovich, Valeri Mouzykant, Zvjezdan Kunich
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.58234  Pages 13 - 18
The article is devoted to an actual and little-studied problem of modern Slavic studies, namely, the study of spiritual vocabulary based on spiritual poetry in Russian and Serbian spiritual culture.
The purpose of this article is to cover the lexical particularities of the Russian spiritual poems in the Serbian linguistical tradition and to demonstrate the relevance of this research.
The texts of the following main types of the spiritual poems were taken as a material for this article:
1. Texts of the epic spiritual poems;
2. Texts of the lyric spiritual poems;
3. Texts of the lyric-epic spiritual poems.
Methods and research methodology conform to the traditions of the Russian and Slavic linguistics.
The research is enable to make a current conclusion that the spiritual poem is one of the most popular subjects in modern slavistics and folkloristics.
From linguistic point of view, it is a poorly studied material.
As a result of authors examination is that the spiritual poem exhibits unique properties, which include religion and national heroic topics, its textual-musical form, emotionality, subjectivity, educational focus. All these terms allow making a whole phenomenon of special genre in culture. Those properties allow the spiritual poem to perform important educational functions. Through informing and persuasion of listeners by emotional and psychological, lyric-subjective and other instruments the necessary conditions are installed for inner spiritual self-development of human.
Therefore the spiritual poem plays an important role in circulation and keeping of basis, including unique and original lexis of Christianity not only in the Russian culture, also in the Serbian.

3.English neologisms in online self-representation
Liliia Sandyha, Iryna Oliinyk, Yuliia Sviatiuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.95914  Pages 19 - 26
The present article considers fundamental changes in modern technology and science, cultural and social spheres reflected in a wide range of new lexical units which enrich the English vocabulary on a daily basis. The switch towards online communication made by representatives of different professions, including presidents and other prominent politicians, celebrities, different social and age groups, etc has spurred the appearance of numerous neologisms in all realms of life as they characterise new trends in people’s self-representation online. The image online users create in various social networks is becoming extremely important for certain categories of people, especially business people, teenagers and young adults. Such digital self-representation combines both verbal and non-verbal means of communication, in particular, photographs have become an extremely important tool of portraying oneself in social media. The current research focuses on the neologisms denoting various types of selfies that are shared in social networks, modern devices that are used to take them, new names of online users, the phenomena which characterize addiction to social networks and cyberspace etc. The neologisms under consideration are classified according to word-forming mechanisms. Different approaches to defining neologisms are considered as well and the difference between neologisms and nonce-formations is studied. Finally, conclusions are drawn and suggestions for further linguistic investigations are made.

4.The sentence structure of scientific works written in Turkic languages in XIII-XVI centuries
Shabnam Rasim Hasanli - Garibova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.49091  Pages 27 - 34
The development of the Turkic languages’ syntactic features have always been the research objective of diachronic studies. Sentence types used in scientific works in the middle ages are the research objectives of this article. Generally, the process of compositing the sentence structure in Turkic languages has always been the subject of discussion and argumentation. And this is a matter due to the confrontation the internal development tendencies of the language with the foreign elements, historically, in the process of polishing a composite sentence, as well as the change of the development tendencies by changing the approach to the process within a certain period of time.Lexical elements, intonation, pause, word order, word repetition play a main role in making up composite sentences without conjunctions. Composite sentences without conjunctions and their subsequent development rate, the formation of composite and compound sentences took place parallelly in Turkic languages. The types of compound and complex sentences formed as a result of the development of a simple sentence in two directions within itself are different evolutionary manifestations of the same structure. Expanding on the basis of verbal constructions with a compound sentence which formed as a result of the expansion of a simple sentence with homogenous parts, forming from the simple sentence, the complex sentences are different ways of expressing a complex idea in speech.However, both types of sentences are distinguished by the fact that the possibilities of expressing reality of simple sentence expanding according to the point, and expressing comprehensively.

5.Comparative evaluation of conducting full-time and virtual excursions in teaching Russian as a foreign language
Irma Molchanova, Olga Savchina, Nadezhda Goreeva, Larisa Demidova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.78045  Pages 35 - 42
The effectiveness of virtual and full-time educational excursions for foreign students in teaching Russian as a foreign language was determined as a result of an experiment conducted in 6 first-year groups at the Russian Language Department of the Medical Institute of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. 3 groups of the first year (48 students) participated in full-time excursions in 2019 and early 2020, when all tourist sites were open. We wrote about the results of such a study in our previous article (Molchanova, Alontseva, Ermoshin, Nikitina, 2020). The remaining 3 groups (45 students) took part in virtual excursions to the same places in the second half of 2020 and early 2021, when all excursion sites were closed. Students of 6 groups were from different countries: Sri Lanka, Morocco, France, Zambia, Iran, Lebanon, Uzbekistan, Botswana, Israel, Armenia, China, Peru, Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria, Abkhazia, Morocco, Jamaica, Egypt and Costa Rick.
Comparison of the results in all six groups unambiguously showed that the abilities of students of all six groups participating in virtual and full-time educational excursions were the same for all criteria.
We offer methodological and practical recommendations for teaching foreign students the Russian language when immersing them in the language environment, as well as when getting acquainted with the history and culture of Russia in a virtual and full-time format.
The article also includes theoretical justifications for the feasibility of conducting any forms of excursions, which are designed to form students' various speech skills.
The practical usefulness of the study lies in the fact that its results, together with the collected material, can be used to create textbooks and conduct practical classes in Russian as a foreign language, as well as in the system of training and advanced training in Russian as a foreign language.

6.Antonym Categories Endemic to Arabic: From Common Frames to Ad hoc Functions
Hamada S A Hassanein
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.51423  Pages 43 - 51
This study identifies and exemplifies three discourse functions of antonymy endemic to Arabic but retrievable and replicable across other language varieties. It sets three specific objectives: (a) to identify the discourse functions of antonymy that Arabic can contribute to the current ones, (b) to identify the syntactic frames that trigger these specific discourse functions, and (c) to exemplify these functions and frames with typical instances from Arabic. To achieve these objectives, the study raises the following questions: (1) What are the discourse functions of antonyms which Arabic can specifically add? (2) What are the syntactic frameworks which trigger such functions? (3) How can these functions and frameworks be empirically verified and representatively typified? Data designed for this qualitative analysis comprise a sample gathered manually from cross-varietal Arabic genres: the Glorious Qur’an (GQ), the Prophetic Tradition (PT), the Divine Tradition (DT) and Arabic Paremiography (AP). Results show three discourse functions or categories of antonymy to be specific and endemic to Arabic. One category is subordinated antonymy which consists of a hypotactic sentential structure in that one antonym occurs in a protatic or subordinate clause and the other in an apodotic or superordinate clause. The second is exchanged antonymy which instantiates abstract antonyms as concrete tradable commodities. The third one is case-marked antonymy, in which anonyms play opposite grammatical or semantic roles, using cross-categorical frames. Further research is direly needed to champion and replicate these specific categories across other languages.

7.John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger: A Critique of the Political Establishment in Postwar Britain
Rashed Daghamin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.81488  Pages 52 - 60
John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger highlights a political malaise and a sense of disillusionment with the political establishment of Postwar Britain. The political dialectic in the play when compared with the social content is not straightforward; nonetheless, since the play challenges the impotent political structure in Postwar Britain, it can be viewed to a certain extent as a radical political play. Jimmy Porter’s anger at the political system, which he thinks keeps him from achieving his goals and aspiration, is destructive to himself and to people surrounding him. In light of Osborne’s Look Back in Anger, and through the lenses of the angry Jimmy Porter, this research paper argues that the play has a political agenda. The study is primarily concerned with exploring the stagnating political structures and examining the impotence of the political establishment in Postwar Britain. The paper concludes that the drama does not offer a glimmer of hope for political change, for Jimmy Porter, a mouthpiece for Osborne, lacks a clear and practical political vision. Osborne’s pessimism over the political structures is ubiquitous, scathing and vociferous. The paper reveals that anger is futile and it cannot provide any robust solutions to the rampant political tribulation in Postwar Britain.

8.Norm and Variability of Phonetic Means, Style and Language Systems
Sabina Elkhan Poladova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.24483  Pages 61 - 67
In recent decades, researchers have been increasingly interested in the interpenetration of phonology and phonetics. Particularly trending is the idea of the systemic conditionality of certain phonetic processes in speech as embodied in modern concepts. There is, moreover, an increased consensus in the field that phonological conceptsare useful only whencorresponding to experimentally established linguistic realities; phonological concepts which hold true when faced with concrete examples. This articles explores such phonological concepts further, as they operate in languagewithinthe framework of the linguistic positions of the Shcherba school, which is characterized by the search for points of contact between phonetic and phonological, psychological and social. The main purpose of the article is to reveal the norms and variability of phonetic devices in language. This topic is particularly relevant,as there are few studies on the features of allophonic change in the spontaneous monologue of literary style, despite the fact that the laws of variability have been known since theearly era of linguistic studies.

9.A Training Program for Developing Basic Skills of English language and Life Skills among Adult Students
Fatma Farid, Fatma Farid Fakhry
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.26937  Pages 68 - 80
The current research aimed at building a training program in basic skills of English language for adult students. Also it aimed at raising the awareness of life skills among adult students. The researcher designed the materials and tools of the study (training program, English language exam and life skills' scale). Then, selecting the participants of the study from adult students in two middle schools at Majmaah governorate in Saudi Arabia. The research had a one-group pretest-posttest design. The participants (N= 25) were pretested by using the English language test and a scale of life skills. Then, training program in basic skills of English language was administered after that, the participants were post tested using English test and a scale of life skills. The results affirmed the questions of the research and there was a higher improvement in students’ scores in post-applications.

10.Elaboration of "Theory and practice of translation" discipline
Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.15483  Pages 81 - 87
The elaboration of "Theory and practice of translation" discipline for teaching of future border guard officers at the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine has been substantiated in the article. The author focuses the main attention on the discipline "Theory and practice of translation", which is mandatory for second-year cadets and is studied during the 3th and 4th semesters as part of the educational and professional training of bachelors of philology. Special consideration is given to program competencies and learning outcomes of cadets of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine specializing in "Philology" (humanities branch) for the first (Bachelor's) level of higher education, which are grouped into general and special (professional, subject) competencies. The organization of the course has been revealed based on to the following topics: Theoretical foundations of translation activity, Translation of English socio-political literature, Summary of texts on professional topics.

11.Efficiency of Preparing Future Training Instructors to Develop Moral and Volitional Qualities and Communicative Skills of Students of Sports Schools
Andrii Laichuk, Lyudmila Demchuk, Oleg Slavityak, Olha Honcharuk, Yurii Davyhora
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03789  Pages 88 - 96
The results of the pedagogical experiment on determining the readiness of future training instructors to develop moral and volitional qualities and communicative skills of the students of sports schools for children and youth are highlighted. The experimental work was carried out in order to test the effectiveness of the pedagogical conditions for the training of future professionals: the transformation of the content of future specialists training at higher education institutions; providing positive motivation for the professional activities of future training instructors; the use of active learning methods in the training process. Research methods: pedagogical observation, survey, psychodiagnostic testing of future training instructors, students of the first (bachelor's) level of higher education (n=251). The students were divided into two groups: experimental (EG), involving 111 people, and control (CG), including 140 people. The analysis of the results of the study showed a positive dynamics of the readiness of future training instructors to develop moral and volitional qualities and communicative skills of the students of sports schools for children and youth: the study revealed an increase in high levels of readiness of the EG students by 3.57%, compared with the CG (0.39%). The indicators of a sufficient level of readiness increased by 2.92% in the EG, and 0.2% in the CG. The comparison of the obtained data in terms of a low level of readiness indicated a decrease in the indicators by 6.94% in the EG and 0.59% in the CG. The conducted research work contributed significantly to the strengthening of values-based professional attitudes, thoroughness, deepening of professional knowledge and skills, the development of communication skills, and the enrichment of the professional experience of future professionals in terms of the development of moral and volitional qualities of the students of sports schools for children and youth.

12.Significance and Characteristic Features of “Fundamentals of Translation” Course Design
Iryna Mishchynska, Yevhen Dolynskyi, Nadiia Moroz, Marko Palahniuk, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.38159  Pages 97 - 103
The research presents the content, goals and objectives, and characteristic features of studying the discipline “Fundamentals of Translation” by future border guard officers as part of bachelors of philology professional training. The main focus of the article has been on the structure of the discipline “Fundamentals of Translation”, which is the elective course for first-year cadets of the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and is studied during the 1st semester. Special attention is paid to the program competencies and the program learning outcomes of future border guard officers of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine specializing in “Philology” (humanities branch) for the first (Bachelor’s) level of higher education, which are referred to general and special (professional, subject) competencies. The structure of the course “Fundamentals of Translation” has been reviewed as a whole including the following topics: Introduction to translation studies; Socio-political significance of translation as a phenomenon; Translation studies in scientific literature; Professional characteristics of translators and interpreters; The term and concept of “translation” and the levels of its implementation; Methods, types and means of language units’ reproduction; Types of translation and interpretation.

13.Psycholinguistic Research of Speech Activity of Junior Students with Intellectual Disorders
Oksana Boriak, Nataliya Pakhomova, Ivan Okhrimenko, Larysa Odynchenko, Dmytro Usyk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03360  Pages 104 - 112
The specificity of speech disorders in primary school children with intellectual disorders is determined primarily by the peculiarities of higher nervous activity and mental development. Speech disorders within intellectual disorders in the psycholinguistic focal area have been little studied. The functional system of language and speech was chosen as the basis for the psycholinguistic research of speech of the selected category of children i. e. a functional self-organizing system that creates basic psychophysiological support for communicative and speech activity. Its system-forming factor is the general task and result i. e. the generation of utterances in the process of speech communication. The purpose of the article is to substantiate the psycholinguistic study on determining the peculiarities of speech disorders of primary school children with intellectual disorders; to describe its qualitative and quantitative indicators. The leading research methods were the observation of speech of the selected category of children, analysis of audio recordings of their utterances, linguostatic processing of quantitative data, generalization of the obtained qualitative and quantitative indicators during the survey. The results of the research revealed the dominance of medium and low levels of development of subsystems of the functional system of language and speech in junior high school students with mild mental retardation and low and extremely low (initial) levels in junior high school students with moderate degree. Based on the results of psycholinguistic research, the variants of speech dysontogenesis in intellectual disorders of children were determined. The results of the research also showed significant violations of the development of basic indicators of the functional system of language and speech at the level of all its subsystems: speech perception; speech comprehension as a thought-mnemonic process, modelling of speech comprehension and generation of speech. It was found that intellectual disorders have a specific impact on the nature of speech disorders.

14.Working out of "Fundamentals of the Theory of Language Communication" Educational Component
Olha Babich, Valentyna Kryshchuk, Olha Mysechko, Valentyna Hrishko-Dunaievska, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.88942  Pages 113 - 120
The article revealed the fact that communication is one of the main indicators of the culture of border control at the border crossing. Border guards are the first to meet and be the last to see off all those who cross the state border. The authors concluded that one of the main properties of modern man is the ability to use their language skills in completely different situations and under different circumstances. The course "Fundamentals of the theory of language communication” is the disciplines that have important theoretical and practical significance, as the ability to communicate is not only the correct formulation of utterances according to grammatical, lexical, stylistic and other requirements but the knowledge of the real contexts of certain statements is important. The authors focused the special attention on the structure of the discipline "Fundamentals of the theory of language communication”, which is compulsory educational component for second-year cadets specializing in "Philology". of the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and is studied during the 4th semester at the Department of Foreign Languages. The structure of studying this educational component by cadets have been revealed in detail including such topics: General principles of speech communication, Communication as a speech activity, Organization of language code in communication, Regulations of language communication, Culture of language communication, Tactical and strategic potential of language communication, Signs and factors of effective and ineffective language communication, Means of communication.

15.Student Motivation Improvement in a Foreign Language Acquisition via the Use of Distance Learning Technologies
Olena Bratel, Maryna Kostiuk, Sergiy Bratel, Ivan Okhrimenko, Liliia Rudenko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.69335  Pages 121 - 134
Quarantine restrictions caused by the coronavirus pandemic in 2020 forced many educational institutions all over the world to start implementing online learning and introducing new teaching methods. The research aims to analyze different distance learning technologies used by teachers of foreign languages in Ukraine and to describe their influence on student motivation. As part of the study, the authors conducted a survey of foreign language teachers working in different educational cycles in Ukraine. The survey consisted of questions about online platforms depending on learning conditions, types of tasks and peculiarities of motivation during the learning process. The online platforms used by teachers were divided into groups according to the aims of their use, and their main characteristics were analyzed. Thus, Ukrainian teachers use one or more platforms for synchronous classes, namely: Zoom, Microsoft Teams, Skype, Google Meet, Moodle, and Discord. For the simultaneous work of all students during the classes, such online boards are used: Padlet, Jamboard, Whiteboard.fi, Miro, Whiteboard Zoom. A variety of interactive tasks are needed to increase motivation, and they can be created on different platforms depending on the needs of students. For example, the following resources can be perfect for the creation of the tasks for language classes: LearningApps, WordWall, Bamboozle, Educaplay, Flippity, Genially, PurposeGames, GoFormative, Cerebriti. As the survey showed, the majority of Ukrainian teachers use different platforms to create test tasks: Kahoot, GoogleForms, Quizlet, Classtime, Quizizz, Socrative, Quizalize, Liveworksheets, Gimkit, Blooket. These platforms permit teachers to see in real-time how students work and provide a strong element of competition that motivates students. To make asynchronous learning more engaging, teachers create interactive video tasks on LearningApps, islCollective, Edpuzzle, Wizer.me, Lyricstraining, Genially and Classtime. Every student has a unique use of approaches to mastering a language, and online learning influences them significantly.

16.Components of Communicative Competence of Prejudicial Inquiry Bodies’ Investigators
Natalia Miloradova, Ivan Okhrimenko, Volodymyr Bondar, Svitlana Okhrimenko, Nataliia Pashko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.04764  Pages 135 - 146
Communication is one of the important areas of professional functions realization by police officers. The formed communicative competence provides the establishment of horizontal and vertical relationships with other people within the professional environment, which is one of the components of the effectiveness of the professional activities of the police in general and the investigator in particular. The communicative element is the leading and dominant component of the activity within the structure of the investigator’s professional activity. Understanding the peculiarities of communicative competence, determining the ways of its formation and development requires careful study of its components namely in future investigators. Therefore, the purpose of the research is to examine the components of communicative competence of prejudicial inquiry bodies’ investigators. Psychodiagnostic tools were used to achieve this purpose, which were tested during the specialists’ training for the prejudicial inquiry units of the Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs. The obtained results were processed using the methods of mathematical statistics. Most of the participants of interest revealed the existence of a stable process of formation and development of the ability to apply different models and styles of behaviour during communication; gradual development of the ability to feel themselves confident in the situation, adapt to new conditions of the professional and educational environment, etc. The existence of two main variants of behaviour in interpersonal interaction was acknowledged, namely: with predominance of independence, leadership and dominance; with responsibility, focus on cooperation and coherence with others. The research will help to understand the peculiarities of the components of communicative competence of investigators and find effective ways to develop and improve it.

17.Reproduction of Lexical and Stylistic Means of Character Formation in Ukrainian and Polish Translations of Lewis Carroll’s Novel “Through the Looking Glass”
Iuliia Golovatska, Yuliia Novosad, Tetiana Tsepeniuk, Iryna Vavriv, Oksana Yarema
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.39205  Pages 147 - 156
The article aims at analyzing the peculiarities of usage and reproduction of lexical and stylistic means of character formation in Ukrainian and Polish translations of Lewis Carroll’s novel “Through the Looking Glass”. Since the analyzed novel belongs to one of the most vivid examples of children’s literature, its translations also stand out for its originality and vividness of color and shape. The usage of simile in the description of character appearance is studied. Having analyzed both translations it was noticed that in most cases Ukrainian translator used similes where neither the author nor the Polish translator used it. The representation of a characters’ behavior with help of epithets and the creation of associative images by means of metaphors are analyzed. Metaphor helps to reveal the inner nature of any phenomenon, object or character and often serves as an individual reflection of the author's world vision. Diminutives as the peculiarity of Ukrainian translation are revealed. They are divided into three groups in the research: 1) names of items, such as creatures, objects, parts of the body; 2) object modifiers; 3) action modifiers. It is defined that following the aim of making the translated text to be well accepted by the target audience, particularly children’s one, the translator should consider both linguistic and cultural aspects in line with the age peculiarities of readers.

18.Methodology for the Professional Speech Competence Formation of the Students of Higher Education Institutions of Physical Culture and Sports
Grygoriy Griban, Dmytro Oleniev, Romana Sirenko, Svitlana Zhyla, Olena Otravenko, Nataliia Terentieva, Svitlana Zamrozevuch-Shadrina, Nataliia Kharchenko, Tetyana Skyrda, Ivan Rybchych
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.71245  Pages 157 - 167
The article substantiates a methodology for the professional speech competence formation of the students of higher education institutions of physical culture and sports and its efficiency. The study, which was conducted in 2018-2020, involved 118 students of the Faculty of Physical Education and Sports of Zhytomyr Ivan Franko State University. The professional speech competence of the students of an experimental group (n=69) was formed on the basis of the original methodology in the learning process; the students of a control group (n=49) were studying according to the existing curriculum at a higher education institution. The original methodology deepened students' knowledge of not only basic educational component but also basic speech concepts, improved their spelling and orthoepic skills, introduced the basics of rhetorical skills, professional communication culture, and professional ethics, provided mastery of terminology in physical culture and sports, pedagogy and psychology of communication, provided the development of the skills in self-control over one's own speech. The results of the pedagogical experiment proved the efficiency of the proposed methodology: 13.1 % of the experimental group students gained a high level of professional speech competence, 24.6 % - a sufficient level, 50.7 % - medium, and 11.6 % - low. In the control group, 4.1 % of students were identified to gain a high level of competence, 16.3 % - a sufficient level, 55.1 % - medium, and 24.5 % - low. The students of the experimental group demonstrated better mastery of all the types of speech activity and the norms of the Ukrainian literary language, which indicated the formation of professional speech competence.

19.Nominal gerundial subordinate clauses in English and their Albanian correspondents
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.07641  Pages 168 - 174
This contrastive analysis enables the readers to be acquainted with the main differences and similarities of the gerundial subordinate clauses between English and their correspondents in Albanian regarding their structures and nominal functions. By studying the main differences and similarities in two languages, it is supposed that many of the mistakes and errors that are done while using this type of non-finite clause might be avoided considerably. Therefore, the major aim of this study is to see the differences and similarities between the nominal functions of gerundial subordinate clauses in English and Albanian languages.
The analysis is done from three English novels and their translated versions in Albanian. These literary works play an important role in consolidating and revealing the similarities and differences between English gerundial subordinate clauses and their translated equivalents in Albanian. This contrastive analysis has proven that the number of differences over rules the number of similarities.

20.Pedagogical and Linguistic Study on Russian Media Development in the Convergence Environment: Diachronic Approach
Ekaterina A. Baranova, Marina R. Zheltukhina, Oksana V. Shiryaeva, Olga V. Sergeeva, Hurshud Kushvaha, Anna V. Poloyan
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.32704  Pages 175 - 183
The aim of the article is to analyze 25 years' experience of the development of Russian mass media in the converged media environment, to identify specific features of their development in 1995-2020. The authors interviewed 84 respondents of 30 media companies over the period of 2009-2020. The main approach of our research is a diachronic approach. The authors came to the conclusion that the specific features of the Russian media development are related to the following factors: 1) a large gap in the level of the convergence development between the national and regional media companies. Unlike European and American regional mass media websites of many Russian regional media still look as almost complete duplicates of their printed or broadcast resources. 2) Low popularity of podcasts on the websites of newspapers. For historical reasons, it is important for the Americans to reinforce each text with a citation or figure, but for the Spaniards, for example, it is not always required. They need an opinion, explanation. In Russia, fact reporting and opinion journalism are separated. At the same time, the podcast unites both facts and different opinions, which is traditional for the European continental journalism. 3) A trend observed in newspapers newsrooms to create their own radio stations. In today's Russia, there are no restrictions on cross ownership of different kinds of media, which allows media companies and publishing houses to develop new media platforms. 4) Absence of Kindle and e-paper editions of Russian printed media; 5) a sceptical attitude of many Russian media managers to the idea of using UGC. 6) Almost complete absence of the paid content on the Russian media websites and the lack of paid subscriptions to the mobile versions. In the West users are willing to pay for the content access, and, therefore, the strategy based on the use of a paywall will generate additional income, it still does not work in Russia, where are very few examples of the paid content online. A typical Russian media consumer is not yet ready to pay for the content.

21.Pedagogical and Linguistic Study of the Children's Television Content in Russia
Oleg I. Burlakov, Ekaterina A. Baranova, Marina R. Zheltukhina, Ekaterina A. Redkozubova, Elena M. Severina, Alexander K. Kalliopin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.94840  Pages 184 - 188
The first children's television programs appeared on Russian television more than 80 years ago. During the Soviet period, great importance has been attached to the role of children's television broadcasting. In the 90s, the state apparatus stopped paying attention to the development of television for children. This led to the replacement of it with foreign cartoons. This trend is also reflected nowadays. The article presents the results of a Pedagogical and linguistic study of children's television viewing in Ryazan. The authors revealed the preferences of the children's audience in Ryazan when choosing television programs and network video content. They used the method of questioning. The survey involved residents of the Ryazan region, parents: mothers and fathers who have children aged 3 to 12 years. 117 respondents were interviewed for the period from September 2019 to October 2019. The respondents answered to such questions as: “How does TV content affect children’s language learning and cognitive ability?”, “what is the duration of TV and video viewing on the Internet for a kid’s audience?”; “what TV channels children watch?”; “what are the most popular Internet resources among the children's audience?”; “how do parents describe modern video content created for children?”; “do we need regional children's programs?”. The obtained data shows that the trend towards journalistic content's primitivization is now embracing children's television. Russian regional TV channels remain an issue area in children's television broadcasting. However, regional TV channels are more influential.

22.Language and Society: Adult Population Value Orientations for Active Lifestyle in Communication and Social Mobility
Victoria V. Nevolina, Kirill Prokhodtsev, Natalia V. Osipova, Alena A. Zharkova, Galina Karpenko, Viktoriya Volkova, Anna M. Yudina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.88896  Pages 189 - 194
Language is both a system of communication between individuals and a social Phenom. The field of language and society is intended to explain how such factors govern our use of language as a class, gender, race, etc. This article is aimed at studying the correlation between language and society, and features of older people social activity. Research methods: as a research method, a questionnaire survey was used as a method of collecting primary information, which allows identifying the main social practices and communications of the adult population. Study Results: the article describes everyday practices, ways of displaying older people’s social activity and communications. It reveals the ways of activating external and internal resources of the adult population. The results reveal that the age-old people who provide voluntary assistance, in general, have a positive assessment of both the present and the future, they retain an effective adaptation strategy, the ability to enjoy life, and maintain good relationships with other people. The study shows that the recipients of assistance, on the contrary, feel themselves at their years, feel the biological and psychological age, which is often older than the passport. It considers the socially important qualities of a volunteer as kindness, responsiveness, self-criticism, optimism, sociability, tolerance, legal literacy, and self-organization. For the first time, it proves that older people are more willing to help those who actively try to participate in solving their problems, rather than those who show dependent moods and passivity in solving any issues.

23.Digital Transformation, Communication Culture, Language and Cognitive Barriers by Internet Users Views
Tatiana Shulga, Irina Charikova, Viktor M. Smirnov, Alena A. Zharkova, Nelya A. Yarygina, Olga M. Kanyaeva, Irina Muradova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.59320  Pages 195 - 200
Taking advantage of digital culture achievements on a daily basis, implementing many functions and capabilities of the Internet, using many practices necessary in a digital society, humanity faces a cognitive gap, which is one of the characteristics and problem fields of information and communication culture research. The study aims to analyze the features of the language and cognitive barriers perception by Internet technology users. Research methods: as a research method, we used the questionnaire method, which allows us to identify the features of users' ideas effectively about using the Internet. Research results: the article describes the peculiarity of the current stage in the development of gadgets’ and Internet technologies’ use; identifies the causes of the language barriers and cognitive gap and ways to overcome it. The authors determined that the active use of communication via the Internet was associated with its cheapness, compared with mobile communication, the ability to exchange photos and music. It is determined that communication via the Internet takes on new facets that people did not actively use at personal or mobile communication - the exchange of content. The study shows that learning becomes one of the significant opportunities that the Internet provides for many respondents. The article proves that one of the most common practices of using Internet resources are: online education, online banking, e-government (payment of fines, tax verification, doctor's appointment, ordering documents, certificates, putting children on the waiting list in educational institutions).

24.Metaphorical and Linguistic conceptualization of sports realities in internet publicist
A. N. Chumakov, T. I. Shnurenko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.00086  Pages 201 - 204
During the history of humanity, sports have played a prominent part in societies. People have admired sports in several ways. For instance, in Ancient Greek, sports had a ritual nature and were played to be worthy of the gods’ blessing. Sports have perpetually had the capability to unify people. Hence, the current article attempts to analyze peculiarities of the language and style of publicist writing on sports of the last decade from the point of view of realization of conceptual means of metaphor. To meet the aim of the study, a descriptive-analytical and data-gathering methods are utilized to illuminate the matter further. Based on the results obtained, the analysis of more than 170 metaphorical contexts has shown that the characterization of sports realities in Internet publications is built up via a system of metaphorical models. Plus, it can be concluded that a multi-aspect study of metaphorical modeling in sports Internet journalism is extremely promising, for it allows describing and classifying an important sphere of the worldview of a man of today such as sports.

25.The Specifics of the Spatio-Temporal Organization in the Story "Mother Rosalia" by the Turkish Writer Sevinch Chokum
Alsu M. Nigmatullina, Alsu Ju. Giniyatullina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03880  Pages 205 - 209
Due to socio-historical and cultural conditions any national literature within itself reveals the general patterns. The main aim of the article is to reflect the specifics and text features, the functioning of which is considered both within the framework of Turkish culture and in the system of dialogue of cultures. Thus, in the story “Mother Rosalia”, Sevinch Chokum presented various forms of open and closed space, which acquired symbolic meaning and composed chronotopic images in the text - roads, rivers, houses, etc. To create a psychological portrait, the author used the perceptual chronotopes of memories, thoughts, and dreams of heroes. The story “Mother Rosalia” written by the Turkish writer Sevinch Chokum, dedicated to the tragic page in the history of the Crimean Tatar people, presents various chronotopic images that play an important role in creating a psychological portrait of the main character. The connection with mythology and folklore is clearly visible in the storyline of the work, as well as in the image of the main character, in which the features of the heroes of the folk epic are reflected.

26.The Ending of the Prose Work History of the Question
Elena Anatolievna Bazhanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93695  Pages 210 - 214
The main aim of the study is to investigate the roots of the emergence of the "ending" in the artistic work, analyze changes of this concept understanding during time, focuses on the key understanding of the “ending” in different epochs up to modern times. To do so, the cultural-historical and complex methods of literature research are utilized in the research. Author studied modern understandings of the “ending” in literature and made conclusions about the blurring of the boundaries of the “ending”. The most exhaustive definition of the "ending" was formulated by V.I. Tupa in the "Brief Literary Encyclopedia." However, when comparing the existing definitions of the term "ending", which do not take into account information flow influence of the artistic work on the possibility of defining it’s “ending” and final elements, it was necessary to rethink both the concept of "ending" itself and the creation of a new terminology, which allows the most complete exploration of the epic work “ending” poetry in general.

27.Personal Names: Achieving Communication in Translation of News Media Texts
Nadezhda P. Pomortseva, Tatiana Vyacheslavovna Morozova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.13285  Pages 215 - 219
The paper makes an insight into the issue of correct interpreting of personal names as a category of proper names to achieve communication in translation of news mass media texts. The analysis is based on the research into the phenomenon of news media texts in Russian and international translation and communication theory and practice. The leading approaches used by the authors are literature analysis, observation and classification of the research material. The authors conclude that the correct interpretation of personal names is crucial for achieving communication in translation of news mass media texts to provide for better understanding between communication agents. The materials of the research may be applied worldwide, i.e. by university staff, educators and researchers who are involved in professional linguistic and communication research and training.

28.Communication Background of News Media Texts
Nadezhda P. Pomortseva, Elena G. Solovyova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.26779  Pages 220 - 224
The paper deals with the role of background knowledge in providing communication in translation of news mass media texts. The analysis is based on the research into the phenomenon of background knowledge in Russian and international translation and communication theory and practice. The leading approaches used by the authors are literature analysis, observation and classification of the research material as well as interviewing, collecting and analyzing the data received via a set of interviews, tests and surveys. To grant well-grounded conclusions the survey of communication background knowledge standard of 57 junior undergraduates is provided in the paper. The authors conclude that background knowledge is crucial for successful communication in translation of news mass media texts to provide for better understanding between the participants of a communication act. The results of the research may be applied by university staff, educators and researchers who are involved in professional linguistic and communication research and training worldwide.

29.Macrostructure of the Russian-German Dictionaries, Compiled in Germany in the 19th Century
Leysan Islamovna Akhmetsagirova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.63308  Pages 225 - 231
The paper presents the comparative study of the macrostructure of the bilingual Russian-German and German-Russian dictionaries compiled in Germany in the 19th century. This research's relevance is determined by the lack of metalexicographic works, devoted to the detailed analysis of this issue. The subject of this study is the bilingual general alphabetical dictionaries. In the course of the research, we analyze these dictionaries with reference to their types and volume, structural parts, and principles of the language units' arrangement. The materials presented in this paper can be used as an empirical basis for further elaborating the history of the Russian-German and German-Russian lexicography. This work is meant for lexicographers and all specialists dealing with the Russian-German lexicography problems from a historical perspective.

30.The Relationship between Hidden Curriculum and Social Responsibility among Northern Border University Students
Osama Hassanein Sayed, Manea Karash Al-dajani
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.37039  Pages 232 - 251
This study aimed at identifying the perceptions of the Northern Border University students towards the aspects and elements of the hidden curriculum at the university and measuring the level of social responsibility among those students, then finding out if there any significant relationship between perceptions towards the hidden curriculum and students’ feeling of social responsibility. Descriptive analytical method was used in this study. The study sample included three hundred (300) undergraduate students (males & females) selected by means of cluster random sampling from the colleges in three clusters (Science colleges; Health Colleges; and Humanity Colleges). To achieve the study objectives, a Hidden Curriculum Questionnaire and a Social Responsibility Scale were prepared and validated by the researchers. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the present study through using the latest version of the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS). Findings indicated that Northern Border University students have positive perceptions towards the aspects and elements of the hidden curriculum at the university. Findings revealed also that Northern Border University students enjoy high level of social responsibility. In addition, findings showed that there is a statistically significant positive correlation between students’ perceptions of the hidden curriculum and their feeling of social responsibility. Based on these findings, it was recommended that more attention should be given to the different dimensions of the Hidden Curriculum at the Northern Border University

LookUs & Online Makale