E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 5 (2)
Volume: 5  Issue: 2 - 2021
1.Specifics of e-mail business correspondence in teaching foreign languages at the basic level of foreign language proficiency
Yulia Nickolaevna Biryukova, Victoria Borisovna Kurilenko, Galina Igorevna Gubanova, Nina Navichna Romanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93446  Pages 1 - 5
Business letters play an important role in the professional activity of a specialist. In order to write a correct business letter in accordance with the accepted rules and regulations. Currently, business correspondence is actively conducted in most cases, regardless of the field of human activity by e-mail. In order to teach a foreigner to write a business letter, the teacher is to have an idea of how to compose an electronic message. He has to know certain methodological characteristics of business letters, which will make it possible to create a methodological characteristic of business letters. The authors of the article identify the methodological features of business letters: content, function, composition, one-aspect/multi-aspect, simplicity/complexity. Taking into account the basic level of foreign language proficiency, the authors of the article compiled a methodological characteristic of business letters in order of complexity. For A2 level, the genres were distributed in the following order: business letter (invitation, response to invitation, congratulations, response to congratulations, gratitude, response to gratitude); standard documents (questionnaire). B1 Level is represented by such genres as a business letter (commercial letter, response to a commercial letter, advertisment); standard documents (preliminary application, visitor's questionnaire; act of delivery and acceptance of goods). The presented genres should be taught in the future. Taking into account the specifics of each of the genres, further articles will describe the method of teaching writing business letters.

2.Expressiveforms of address in russian and spanish network discourse
Oksana Glazova, Ekaterina Davydova, Olga Grachova, Anna Basmanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.89421  Pages 6 - 10
The Internet space dictates new conditions of life and communication. The ability to use language on the Internet is becoming an integral part of our life. Interest in speech etiquette and the ability to use it has never waned. It reflects the national-cultural specificity of speech behaviour. Comparison of education and functioning of expressive forms of address in different languages, in particular, in Russian and Spanish, is of interest in terms of many psycholinguistic factors. The analysis of the use of expressive forms of address (EFA) in online Russian and Spanish discourse is dictated by the immeasurably increased popularity of these speech means for communication on the Internet. The article is focused on the function of EFAs in the Internet space and the methods of their formation; the frequency of use is analysed and an attempt is made to explain the appearance of some of them. Consideration is also given to the factors influencing the formation and functioning of EFAs in Russian and Spanish network discourse. The authors reviewed the literature on this issue, presented materials and described methods used in the study, identified psychological factors influencing the formation and functioning of expressive forms of address on the Internet, compiled a table of the frequency of their use in Spanish and made an attempt to explain the reason for the appearance of such forms.

3.Ideological Agency in Edward Bond’s Lear
Ayman Farid Khafaga, Mohammed Aldawsari
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.63496  Pages 11 - 23
The term ‘agency’ can be reflected in discourse by different linguistic manifestations, including deictic pronouns, modality, and syntactic aspects, such as passivization and negation. This paper attempts to investigate the ideological weight exhibited by the usage of agency in Edward Bond’s Lear. The paper’s main objective is to test the hypothesis of whether or not different ideologies, be they persuasive or manipulative, can be channeled by specific linguistic devices expressing agency. More specifically, the paper explores the extent to which agency, irrespective of its linguistic manifestations, is discursively perceived as an ideological conduit, wherein different ideological meanings pertinent to a specific type of discourse are encoded. Three aspects of agency are analytically covered in this paper: Pronouns (I, you, we), modality (obligation, truth) and syntactic aspects (passivization, negation). In so doing, the paper draws on three analytical strands: (i) ideological discourse analysis as approached by van Dijk (1995); (ii) Fairclough’s grammatical model of analyzing discourse (1989); (iii) and the computational linguistics approach instanced by Concordance (Hockey, 1980; Kennedy, 1998). Findings reveal that through agency writers/speakers can encode their ideologies, reflect their power, and influence their recipients’ schematic world, as well as their cognitive attitudes to arrive at specific persuasive and/or manipulative purposes.

4.Conceptual Metaphor as a Means of Terminological Nomination
Nadia Yesypenko, Olena Yankovets, Olga Beshlei, Andrii Yankovets, Ihor Bloshchynskyi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.57805  Pages 24 - 29
Metaphors have been classically used as a means of linguistic expression marked by aesthetic, cultural, axiological value. Metaphors are distinguished as operating mechanisms in language as they underlie our everyday communication. Considering metaphorical transferences as a basic phenomenon that occurs throughout the whole range of language activity, in this article we try to study the input of metaphorical transferences into the formation of English terminological units relating to the modern border protection sphere. Military terminology cannot dispense with metaphorical elements to the extent that the frequent use of some metaphorical terminological units has proved the basic premise of Conceptual Metaphor Theory: metaphor is not simply a stylistic feature of language, but that thought itself is fundamentally metaphorical in nature. It is the frequency of terms usage in the military sphere that determines the levelling of vivid imagery, loss of novelty and comparison underlying metaphorical transposition. The evaluative colouring of the term recedes into the background, and the metaphorical nature is no longer perceived as a metaphor.

5.Deterioration of the Matrimonial Sentiments in the Post-War Family in Light of John Osborne’s Look Back in Anger
Khalid Sultan Thabet Abdu, YAHYA Ali Mutaher AL-qadhi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.46872  Pages 30 - 35
The post-war Britain has faced a lot of challenges politically, socially and economically. Undeniably, it was so difficult for the post-war generation to juxtapose and adapt with the new changes and conditions in the society due to the political considerations represented in the loss of GB for most of its 37 colonies around the world. In the literary strain and stance, new born changes and shifts have absolutely implemented. The familial ties have lost their purity and there was familial nostalgia for the loyalty and fidelity of the past decades. So, UK began to lose the divided colonies across the world since 1949 and particularly after WWII. As it was relying on the several sources from its colonies, the economic facet in the country began to decline and the compensation honestly was the unemployment, poverty, lack of contact and loss of morality and hence the appearance of angry young generation or youth as incarnated in Look Back in Anger (1956) by John Osborne. In the same strain, the class crisis was obviously the essential why behind the thwarting relationship between spouses as represented between Jimmy Porter and his wife Alison Porter. Thus, Jimmy Porter highly is evaluated as the angry young man who represents the pessimistic or disillusioned view for the post-war conditions. Hence, the current article is mainly shedding light on the decline of the British marital life as represented by the Porters.

6.Influence of Social Status on the Prosodic Characteristics (on the Example of the Interjection “Well”)
Yuliia Babchuk, Larysa Karasova, Olga Komarova, Ihor Bloshchynskyi, Oleksander Farmahei
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.44608  Pages 36 - 43
The article reviews the influence of social status on the prosodic characteristics of the interjection Well. The authors focus the special attention on the prosodic characteristics of the interjection Well with the help of multifunctional computer programmes PRAAT and Speech Analyzer. The paper concerned with the analysis of prosodic characteristics such as: the range of fundamental frequency and speech rate. The intensity has been identified as a component of prosody. The indexes of the average maximum and minimum of fundamental frequencies and speech rate are visually shown. In the paper the social difference of intensities was identified. The indexes of maximum and minimum rates of fundamental frequency are visually represented. The examples of the interjection Well by means of intensity charts that demonstrate speech directions of the speakers were presented. A wide range of frequency for the representatives of low-income brackets specifies this direction of speech melody (intonation). The focus of this paper is prosodic characteristics of the interjection Well and formant’s spectral pictures. The paper is concerned with the analysis of timbre as a prosody component by means of which strengthening of sounding in the appropriate formant is visually shown. The timbre characteristics of the interjection Well and its belonging to a certain social class has been considered. The quantitative distribution of the interjection Well was pointed out by analysis of formant’s structure.

7.Approaching Intertextuality in Drama
AYMAN Farid Khafaga1, Venkanna Nukapangu
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.35693  Pages 44 - 53
Most contemporary playwrights acknowledge that Shakespeare’s dramas are for use as raw material to be assimilated into contemporary mould, not to be revered strictly as untouchable museum pieces. Being the model of all dramatists, Shakespeare had a great influence on English theatre, his plays are still performed throughout the world, and all kinds of new, experimental work find inspiration in them. This paper investigates the intertetextual relationships between William Shakespeare’s King Lear (1606) and Edward Bond’s Lear (1978). The main objective of the paper is to explore the extent to which Bond manages to use Shakespeare’s King Lear as an intertext to convey his contemporary version of Shakespearean classic. Two research questions are tackled here: first, how does Shakespeare’s King Lear function as a point of departure for Bond’s contemporary version? Second, to what extent does Bond deviate from Shakespeare to prove his originality in Lear? The paper reveals that Bond’s manipulation of intertextuality does not mean that he puts his originality aside. He proves his originality by relating the events of the old story to contemporary issues which in turn makes the story keep pace with modern time.

8.Professional training of future specialists in tourism and hotel and restaurant business in European countries
Larysa Bezkorovaina, Natalya Makovetskaya, Anna Sydoruk, Karina Korolenko, Volodymyr Naumchuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.29053  Pages 54 - 62
The article presents the results of a study of the state and current trends in solving the problem of professional training of future specialists in tourism and hotel and restaurant business in Europe. Based on the analysis of scientific and educational literature, Internet resources, the requirements of society for the qualification of tourism professionals are identified, the direction, content and structure of educational programs of leading European universities are revealed. Clarification of the features of national scientific and pedagogical complexes for training specialists for the tourism and hotel industry in Switzerland, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Greece allowed not only to compare them, but also to identify the main factors that enable the formation of highly qualified personnel, namely, multilevel pedagogical system, its interdisciplinarity and multiculturalism, ensuring academic and professional mobility, balance of academic knowledge and practical training. The study of the experience of tourism education in European countries shows that it takes into account the requirements of society regarding the quality of training, modern conditions and the specifics of professional activity.

9.French Teaching Methods in Galicia (the Second Half of the 19th Century)
Anton Ivashchuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.24993  Pages 63 - 72
The article deals with methods of teaching French, used in Galician schools and gymnasiums during the second half of the 19th century. A detailed analysis of grammar-translation and textual translation methods of French language learning was carried out. The author provides the definitions of translation methods of teaching foreign languages given by modern Methodists and the Galician ones of that time. Methodical works concerning French language learning in Galicia during the second half of the 19th century were analyzed in detail. It was found that during the specified chronological period, grammar-translation and textual translation methods were used to study French in Galicia. The author presents the characteristic features of French language learning utilizing translation methods of teaching foreign languages. There is described the training of phonetic, grammar, lexical materials, reading, speaking, and writing using translation methods. Particular attention is paid to the study of grammar material, the thoughts of which differed in grammar-translation and textual translation methods. It has been proved that Galician educators and methodologists have implemented translation methods in learning French with certain features, such as teaching the pronunciation of French sounds at the initial stage of the study, as well as explaining the difference between sound and letter.

10.The effect of Classroom Management in Oral Communication and Willingness to Communicate: A Case Study of Saudi Learners of English as Foreign Language
Turki Assulaimani, Hassan Saleem Alqurashi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.24008  Pages 73 - 84
This article presents an evaluation of factors that affect students’ willingness to engage in oral communication during foreign language classes at university level in Saudi Arabia. Results presented in this discussion are based on qualitative surveys of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) students and teachers.
This investigation highlights the role of teachers and classroom management. For data collection, the researcher used a triangulation method which utilized focus-group discussions and individual interviews. The study adopts the views of MacIntyre (1994) along with MacIntyre and Charos (1996) on the willingness to communicate WTC as a theoretical framework. The results indicate that class duration and size constituted the two most important factors affecting classroom communication. The volume and nature of the material taught within the class also played a significant role.
Students were disinclined to communicate with their teachers primarily because they feared the teachers’ reaction if they committed errors. The research found that extensive corrective feedback on the part of the teachers inhibited students from attempting to speak up in class. Students also voiced their dissatisfied with the choice of topics during these sessions as they viewed them as irrelevant to their own cultural and social background. Thus, they had little motivation to engage in oral communication in English classes.

11.Barriers and issues of Arabic speaking practices among foreign students in Jordanian universities
Abeer Al Shbeil
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.05925  Pages 85 - 94
This study aims to find the obstacles that face foreign students (non- Arabic speaking) and limit their ability to speak Arabic fluently. The study population included foreign students and Arabic language teachers in some public universities. This study followed the qualitative methodology. Therefore, the interviews were designed for interviewing the respondents. The interviews were analyzed using the Atlas program. This study found some problems facing students, and these problems are physiological problems, educational problems, and cultural problems. The physiological problems included the lack of self-confidence and shyness, as well as fear of speaking in front of the public. Educational problems envelop the lack of a suitable learning environment for Arabic speakers and the failure to allocate lectures to practice speaking Arabic. Finally, cultural issues relate to the lack of participation in the community to practice the language and the lack of an appropriate environment in which spoken Arabic can be practiced.

12.Tense and Aspect in the Taif Dialect
Yasir Alotaibi, Abdel Fattah Daw, Muhammad Alzaidi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04695  Pages 95 - 100
The main aim of this paper is to describe the tense and aspect of the Taif Dialect (TD), which is an Arabic dialect. We argue that TD is like Standard Arabic in that it has two verb forms, which are the perfective and the imperfective form. There are some differences between the Standard Arabic and TD in the types of tenses and aspects. In this paper, we show that TD takes some regular auxiliaries in Standard Arabic, such as kaan and yakuwn and derives new auxiliaries from lexical verbs in Standard Arabic, such as qaam and qacad. Additionally, this paper shows a variety of possible aspects that can be denoted by combining an auxiliary and a lexical verb in the perfective or the imperfective form.

13.Ancillary Antonyms: Syntagms and Paradigms from Arabic
Hamada S. A. Hassanein, Mohammad Abdoh Mahzari
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.03780  Pages 101 - 112
This article seeks to identify and exemplify the central role of Jones’s (2002) ancillary antonymy in signaling, sharpening and triggering a range of canonical, semicanonical and noncanonical oppositions in discourse, as well as spinning and weaving a web of lexical-semantic relations between these paired oppositions. The specific objective is to quantify and qualify the syntagmatic combinations and paradigmatic selections of ancillary oppositions and the lexical-semantic relations they hold in between in Arabic paremiographical discourse. To fulfill this objective, the study builds on Jones’s (2002) model of ancillary antonymy, testing it quantilitatively against a representative dataset collected manually from a compilation of Arabic paremiography. Findings reveal nine paradigmatic choices and eight syntagmatic chains of ancillary oppositions in Arabic proverbs, which hold in between hyponymous, meronymous, analogous and duplicate relations and which range in a graded cline from full canonicity via partial canonicity to noncanonicity. The typology devised in this study might serve as an analytic toolkit for ancillarity use across languages and cultures.

Keywords: ancillarity, antonymity, (non)canonicity, paradigms, syntagms

14.The Socio-Political Repression in Arthur Miller’s The Crucible
Khalid Sultan Thabet Abdu, Yahya Ali Mutaher Al-qadhi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.03371  Pages 113 - 119
The Crucible (1952) is regarded as one of the best dramaturgic feats in the contemporary American theatre as it tackles the human oppression of the modern man in relation to such case in the seventies of the seventeenth century. Arthur Miller (1915-2005) wrote his The Crucible after paying more investigations regarding the social reputation of an individual during the 1950s of the twentieth century. He was highly obsessed with the colossal closeness in the nature of social humiliation between the two centuries focusing attention meanwhile in the socio-political repression of a man in the modern society. Moreover, Miller seems patently influence by the intended destruction of the political and social position of a man in the post-war American community. So, the play majorly is concentrated on enhancing the current generation so as to rid of such oppression and defaming in order to live peacefully. This article aims to spot light on the manipulated socio-political repression circumstances in the American community. Furthermore, it takes place to revolve around the necessity of sublimity of the human reputation and not to believe on the accusations based on witchcraft, sorcery and political-opposition considerations. Thus, The Crucible is the dramatization of testing and scrutinizing the inner values, ethicalities, trends, attitudes and yet the real conscience of an individual in the post-war society.

15.Model of preparation of future teachers for the development of school studentsʼ health culture
Volodymyr Naumchuk, Mykola Bozhyk, Andrii Ohnystiy, Kateryna Ohnysta, Oleh Vynnychuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.02439  Pages 120 - 130
The purpose of the study is to substantiate and experimentally test the model of preparing future teachers for the development of school students' health culture. The latter is considered an integral part of the general culture of the teacher, which reflects a set of health competencies and values that ensure a healthy lifestyle, the formation and strengthening of health, both their own and students’. The model of preparation of future teachers for the development of health culture of secondary school students reflects the purpose, objectives, content, forms and methods of this pedagogical process and its result - the professional readiness of students for future teaching. Its implementation is aimed at becoming students of higher educational institutions as subjects of health culture. The effectiveness of the proposed model is ensured by compliance with a set of organizational and pedagogical conditions, such as the implementation of a personality-oriented approach in the process of training future teachers; use of interdisciplinary connections in the educational process; proper educational and methodological support on the basis of modern information technologies; comprehensive and systematic control of students' academic achievements.

16.Representation of Polysemous Words in the Lexicon
Svetlana A. Pesina, Lyalya G. Yusupova, Natalia V. Kozhushkova, Tatyana Yu. Baklykova, &1054;lesya A. Golubeva, Svetlana S. Velikanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.93276  Pages 131 - 136
The article presents the results of a psycholinguistic experiment aimed at identifying the way of revealing of polysemantic content in an individual vocabulary. The results of the study have shown that a native speaker needs no extended definition storage to operate and store the meanings of polysemants. The paper supports the main principles of the semantic theory that we are evolving which consists in the fact that a minimum of general features is sufficient to under-stand the meaning in a communicative time trouble (if it is required to understand the semantics of a word, for example, a concept). A rapid access to the meaning can be provided by dominant semantic features of a general nature, representing all the meanings of a word, summarizing its semantics. A particular contextual meaning, like a vague formation, is formed in consciousness at the time of speech, conforming to a specific linguistic situation. To identify it in the process of communicative time trouble, a minimum number of features, often general, is sufficient. The ex-periment is also aimed at verification of the cluster-invariant structure of polysemants, identifica-tion of the network model of the lexicon organization and semantic structure, identification of the dominant elements of the word structure, algorithms for decoding figurative meanings.

17.The Linguistic And Instructive Heritage Of Theophan The Recluse As A Phenomenon In Church Slavonic Literature
Yao Song, Ivan Alexandrovitch Remorov
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.89266  Pages 137 - 145
The aim of the work is to consider the peculiarities of the linguistic and instructive heritage of Theophan the Recluse, which is a phenomenon in Church Slavonic literature. The author attempts to consider the value and significance of the work of St. Theophan, along with its spiritual content, can also be defined as an attempt to improve the modern Russian literary language: on the one hand, with the help of linguistic means, he brought together and simplified complex spiritual truths for the reader's perception, and on the other – he expanded the horizons of the opponent by including various difficult to perceive words and expressions in the written language, using the latter in easy-to-understand contexts. According to the author, the considered linguistic heritage of St. Theophan can be an example for others to follow modern linguists, as it will solve some problems of development of Russian literary language in the modern era and will not lose its traditions, which for centuries acted as pillars supporting the national value of Russia, Russian language

18.Lexicographic Study of the Linguocultural Concept «Love-Mehebbet» In English and Tatar Languages
Gulnaz Valiullina, DIANA KAJUMOVA, Elena Victorovna Valeeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.85698  Pages 146 - 153
The article is devoted to the comparative study of the linguocultural concept "love" in the English and Tatar languages. In this work, the linguoculturological concept "love" is compared in the Tatar and English languages on the example of lexicographical sources. The relevance of the research topic is determined by the fact that love is one of the most complicated and richly represented in the language of the phenomena of the emotional sphere, which began to attract the attention of linguists and linguoculturological in recent years. The comparison of different structural languages will reveal both parallel sides since this concept is universal for all languages; and distinctive features, which is explained by the different structures of the languages in question. This article examines the concept of "love" (MBT, love) in ways to transfer lexicographic interpretations of linguistic and cultural concepts in the dictionaries of the Tatar and English, namely in terms of their semantics, as well as conceptual and syntagmatic relations. The material of the article and the results of the study are of interest to scientists studying concepts in English and Tatar languages. The results can be used in the study of such disciplines as linguoculturology, linguistics, lexicography, etc.

19.V. Korolenko's prose in 1880s–1900s: on northern space
Anna Oshchepkova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.85547  Pages 154 - 160
The article deals with the representation of the northern space as a mythological locus in V. Korolenko's prose. The author attempts to determine the trend of a mythologization of the northern space in the context of the writer's creative evolu-tion in the 1880s–1900s.

20.Multiculturalism: a challenge or a virtue. The case of teaching english in the north caucasus, russia
Rashid Alikaev, Rosina Efendieva, Lilia Trius, Tatiana Shiryaeva, Madina Shorova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.80958  Pages 161 - 167
This paper focuses on the issue of multiculturalism and multi-confessionalism management through higher education system in the North Caucasus, Russia, Pyatigorsk State University (PSU) in particular, and in the world in general. The authors show the positive effect of educational strategy on economic development of the regional socio-economic system through the emphasis on the necessity to shape a universal scheme for intercultural understanding and tolerance fostering. The article gives the analysis of the modern international experts’ points of view on the problem and point out the necessity to appeal to the higher education resources in economic development of multicultural regions. Subsequently, the authors concentrate on the positive change in the North Caucasus in previous decades due to the constructive transformations in multicultural society according to the Federal government policies. The article provides exemplification of PSU initiatives – the educational techniques for multiculturalism education through intercultural communication training. Nationality centered approach is described as an efficient tool for the ethnic cultures interaction and economic growth in the North Caucasus, Russia and suggested as a universal strategy for higher education.

21.Basic data about the consonant system of the Low German subdialect spoken by the Mennonite Germans in the Simferopol region of the Crimean peninsula
Yulia Berezina, Olga Baykova, Obukhova Olga
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.80037  Pages 168 - 174
The purpose of this article is to describe the consonant system of a German subdialect in the Crimea, namely, the Low German subdialect spoken by the Mennonite Germans, who live in the Simferopol region of the Crimean peninsula. The settlements of the Mennonite Germans in the Crimea have a long tradition. In the 1940s German settlements throughout the peninsula were abolished, and the German population was deported to various regions of the former USSR. As a result, many Germans have lost their native language, living dispersedly among the Russian-speaking population. However, the Mennonite Germans have retained their native language even after their return to Simferopol from the places of deportation. Unfortunately, their number, measured at the beginning of the 20th century in dozens of thousands, tends to zero these days. Only three German Mennonites living in the Simferopol region of the Crimea took part in the study.

22.Freedom of Expression. Are We Safe Online?
Kamila Danilovna Shaibakova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.74755  Pages 175 - 181
The article sheds light on the problem of freedom of expression as well as privacy online. Nowadays, intermediaries such as Facebook, Google, and Twitter play a crucial role in the lives of people. Their policies, in addition to the governmental regulations, could seriously affect human rights. The extraterritoriality and non-state actor status of transnational companies are also problems when considering the violation of human rights as legally transnational corporations cannot violate rights as non-state actors and have no obligation towards people. In addition, fake news and trolley factories became an actual problem that claimed to be able to affect even elections.
Furthermore, they could affect the right to know and receive information, which constitutes a part of the general right to freedom of expression. However, as the recent examples show, social media platforms knowingly keep fake information despite the public announcement of human rights commitments. In addition, while claiming the dedication to human rights protection, businesses are still more interested in profit.

23.Understanding The Text With Foreign Language Inclusions: The Issue Of Communication Strategies (Based On The Novel "Duhless" By S.Minaev)
Anastasiya Mubarakshina, Nailya Fattakhova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.65668  Pages 182 - 186
The article is devoted to research carried out in line with cognitive linguistics and text semantics. The novelty of the work is the introduction into the scientific circulation of new language material, which has not yet come under the attention of linguistic scientists in the aspect of communication strategies and tactics in particular, as well as cognitive linguistics in general. The subject of study was and received a comprehensive description of the strategy to ensure understanding of the text with foreign inclusions in contemporary artistic discourse. The material of the study was the vocabulary of the novel “Duhless” by the famous shocking writer Sergei Minaev. The paper identifies and typologizes communicative tactics and moves that implement the studied strategy. This study contributes to the development of the theory of understanding in a situation of distant communication, and also confirms the provisions of cognitive linguistics related to the dependence of a person’s physical experience with the world and its conceptual system.

24.Strategies And Tactics Of Romantic Communication In Russian And English Linguistic Cultures Based On Literary Texts
Alina Zagrebelnaya
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.36744  Pages 187 - 192
This article is devoted to the study of romantic communication from the point of view of its linguistic and cultural features. Special attention is paid to the illustration of the usage of strategies and tactics of romantic communication in a comparative aspect exemplified on the Russian and English literary texts to define the most characteristic strategies and tactics of romantic orientation for these linguistic cultures.

25.conomic Mechanisms To Regulate Environmental Protection Practices In Industrial And Household Waste Management In The Russian Federation
Anna Geroldovna Bezdudnaya, Marina Gennadievna Treyman, Tatyana Yuryevna Ksenofontova, Roman Valentinovich Smirnov, Sergey Vyacheslavovich Prokopenkov, Tatiana Nikolaevna Kosheleva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.32548  Pages 193 - 199
The study focuses on the aspects of environmental protection practices in the Russian Federation primarily with regard to industrial and household waste management. The paper outlines waste management practices employed in Russia and other countries and provides an efficiency assessment. The basic economic mechanisms, such as tariff regulation, environmental levy and environmental impact fees, are described and assessed in terms of their stimulating effects on waste management improvement in the Russian Federation. Aspects of waste removal under a single regional operator are discussed and a model of public-private partnership in waste management is proposed and detailed.

26.Actualization Of Optative Mood In Russian Paroemias
Svetlana Shustova, Yurii Pinyagin, Yulia Komarova, Amina Abdullina, Svetlana Androsova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.26097  Pages 200 - 204
The article deals with the issues associated with the actualization of the category of optative mood in paroemic units. The optative mood is analyzed in two complementary aspects: the optative mood as a particular case of the subjunctive mood and as a syntactical mood that indicates a wish. The optative mood is a special modal type of sentence that captures the grammatical meaning of the desirability of the indicated situation for the speaker and has formal properties that distinguish this type of sentence from other modal types of sentences. The materials used are Russian language paroemias related to complex phenomena of the language, as in addition to a wide functional potential, these paroemias capture the actualization of various grammatical categories. The semantic component of paroemias is realized in certain contextual conditions, which causes difficulties in determining particular grammatical meanings.

27.Associative-Verbal Field Of The Concept "Migration Processes"
Svetlana Shustova, Svetlana Shlyakhova, Aigul Karamova, Olga Shestakova, Larisa A. Belova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.25901  Pages 205 - 209
This article discusses issues related to the study of linguistic actualization of modern processes taking place in the world. First of all, we are talking about migration processes that are due to political, economic and social reasons. The increase in international political, scientific, economic, educational, and social contacts, constantly growing migration flows and the formation of migrant enclaves – all that have led to a great interest in the study of migration discourse. The analysis of migration discourse is associated not only with the formation of new approaches to its study, but also with an attempt to attract methods from other areas of linguistics, in particular, psycholinguistics. The article presents the results of a free associative experiment that reflects the concept of "MIGRATION PROCESSES" in the minds of Russian speakers. The study of the linguistic representation of concepts in the minds of native speakers is a trend in linguistic research, as it allows fixing the categories that informants refer to when describing these processes. The article shows the importance of specific categories that are actualized by verbal signs stored in the mental vocabulary of an individual.

28.Yakut Folk Dream Dictionary: Semantics And Structure
Elena Stanislavovna Ivanova, Luisa Lvovna Gabysheva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.21043  Pages 210 - 216
The article deals with dream interpretation as a cultural text (in a broad semiotic sense) within which different aspects of associative processing of popular cultural symbols by mundane consciousness are manifested. The nominations chosen for the study, acting as dream signs, are often interpreted based on the inherent universal cultural symbols. Paying attention to dreams has been extremely typical of the Yakut popular culture. The interest in dreams is a stable cultural element of the traditional society without which the current image of the society would have been seriously incomplete. Reflecting the meanings that are the most relevant for an individual, connected to everyday work, state of health, interpersonal relations, and wish fulfillment, the dream corpus is inherently anthropocentric. Every people's worldview is distinct and determined by the history of the ethnos, geographic location, beliefs, and numerous other factors. Dream interpretations are an essential element of the national linguistic worldview and reflect the features of activity, consciousness, and thinking of the culture bearers. In the Yakut cultural tradition, dreams are a way of communicating with the afterworld. A dream is regarded as a phenomenon akin to death but not death as non-existence but rather otherworldly; dreams are opposed to reality.

29.Translation of Russian realia in Tolstoy’s “Anna Karenina” into Spanish
Olga G. Palutina, Svetlana O.Pupyreva, Aliya R. Ismagilova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.07752  Pages 217 - 226
This article dwells upon the methods of translation and interpretation of Russian realia into the Spanish language on the basis of the novels by Leo Tolstoy. Realia are linguistic units also defined as culture-bound, culture-specific, culturally loaded or equivalent-lacking words, which often cause difficulties with their translation. During the era of international communication and collaboration in many spheres including literature, it is of major importance to adapt some foreign concepts and realia to the receiving cultures. Two translations of the novel “Anna Karenina” have been analyzed and various possibilities of transfer of cultural peculiarities linked to the 228 Russian ethnic concepts are shown in the article.

30.Developing speech environment in the languages of the indigenous peoples of the North
Elena Naidenova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2021.05668  Pages 227 - 237
At present, in Russia, the state of the languages of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East is of serious concern. The number of speakers is rapidly decreasing. In a situation where the natural speech environment disappears, it becomes necessary to create a developing speech environment, i. e. artificial conditions for the development of speech. The subject of the author's research is the state of the speech environment in the languages of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia, and the Far East of the Russian Federation in settlements with a compact residence of these peoples and, first of all, the practice of the developing speech environment in educational institutions located there. In the course of the research, a survey was conducted among residents, including staff of school administration, from 12 settlements of six constituent entities of the Russian Federation. A project of a model of a developing speech environment for extracurricular activities at schools was put forward.

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