E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 4 (9)
Volume: 4  Issue: 9 - 2020
1.Guidelines On The Teacher’s Activities In The Field Of Online Risk Prevention
Valentina Salakhova, Elmira Khairullina, Ellina Emelina, FARID GALIMOV, Tatiana Larina, Elena Slepneva, Svetlana Starygina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.94899  Pages 1 - 7
The paper presents the study results of the main areas of activities carried out by teachers of educational institutions in the field of prevention of online risks that students encounter. The conceptual framework for changing the existing practice of organizing preventive activities in educational institutions is proposed by the authors. The conclusions have been drawn that it is necessary to shift the emphasis from a predominantly informational and educational approach to a subject generating one. It has been proved that psychological service should be the basis for the implementation of psychological and pedagogical activities to prevent deviations among minors in educational institutions. The activities of a teacher-psychologist should include the components that provide the creation of conditions and increase the range of capabilities of the educational environment, the development of students’ hardiness to online risks and threats. In addition, this activity should be cyclical in nature, mediated by age stages of development.

2.The Importance Of Cultural Seme In The Semantics Of Different Language Units For Political Texts Interpretation
Jerome Baghana, Elena V. Bondarenko, Yuliya S. Blazhevich, Oleg A. Zubritskiy, Katarina Slobodova Novakova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.09581  Pages 8 - 11
The relevance of this study is justified by the novelty of the material under consideration, as well as the relatively low level of study of this issue. The purpose of the study was to identify the features of language means of influence on the target audience. The main objective of the study was to examine the political texts of the ruling parties of Great Britain and the Republic of Cameroon, and to study the features of the language tools used by both parties. The study uses descriptive methods, as well as the method of component and contextual analysis. The article is devoted to the study of political texts’ peculiarities: “The Conservative and Unionist Party Manifesto 2019” of Britain and “Circular on to the Cameroon People’s Democratic Movement electoral campaign for elections of February 9, 2020” of Cameroon. The abovementioned documents were selected for the reason that they are actual at the time of the study. The language tools represented in these texts are analyzed. The meaning of the term "political text" is considered, and several variants of meanings proposed by researchers are presented. The mentioned documents were chosen as a subject for research because they are similar in content, target audience, and due to similar reasons for publication. Similar extracts were chosen from the entire volume of documents submitted, introduction and appeal to the electorate or party members. We noted the features specific to each of the selected documents and we analyze the possible meanings of certain document words. The study used dictionaries of the English language, as well as explanatory dictionaries of the English language. Based on the data presented in the dictionaries of Cambridge and Oxford Universities, language features were identified, as well as specific ways of influencing the target audience.

3.Languages Of Wider Communication And Frontier Languages In Africa
Jerome Baghana, Yuliya S. Blazhevich, Tatiana G. Voloshina, Emilia A. Bocharova, Ekaterina V. Kovaltsova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.58661  Pages 12 - 17
The article provides an outline on the sociolinguistic situation in Africa, in Nigeria and Cameroon, considering a hotspot of linguistic and cultural diversity. The focus is placed on the languages of wider communication of the region. The analysis of various aspects of the situation is suggested concerning sociolinguistic functions and status of the languages under consideration. The authors give an insight into the problem related to the European partition of Africa and artificial nature of state borders in the region as the Nigeria-Cameroon borderland is a large area, geographically and linguistically diverse accounting for a great number of transborder languages. Various terms related to languages for communication between groups of speakers which do not speak each other’s language and languages spoken across borders of the partitioned countries are compared and analyzed. Much attention is also given to the linguistic outcomes of such partition.

4.Professional Formation Of A Teacher-Psychologist In The Conditions Of Higher Education
Sergeeva M.G, Shilova V.S, Syvorotkina S.yu, Lesnikova S.L, Shumeyko A.A, Yastreb O.V
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.47550  Pages 18 - 23
The professional duties of a teacher-psychologist (hereinafter – TP) include the following key forms of psychological work: informing, prevention, evaluation, correction and support. The significance of each of the mentioned varieties depends on the problem being solved by the TP, and on the specifics of the organization in which he works. From our point of view, the professional activity of TP as a representative of supporting professions should be considered as one of the most complex and multi-tasking types of socially useful activity. Vocation to this work is a complex phenomenon, expressed in a number of individual characteristics, intellectual and emotional readiness to perform the functions of TP. A competent analysis of the component composition and content specifics of professional evolution (primarily at an early stage) provides for its correlation with various components of general competence and professional activity, mainly with professionally significant properties that are the basis of any existing profession, representing both the requirements imposed on it and indicators of the formation of the effectiveness of professional evolution at an early stage. As a member of the supporting professions, the training of the TP should use innovative training technologies, which we believe also contribute to improving the level of professional training.
The expediency of successful preparation of future TP is due to the demands of modern Russian society, associated with sharp changes in all spheres of public life, which provoked the intensification of negative processes: deterioration of the criminal situation, rising unemployment, increased numbers of people taking drugs, the growth of administrative indifference to the education of full citizen (physically healthy, mentally stable, decent and happy).

5.National Stereps In Comparisons Of The Russian Language
Gulnaz Albertovna Maksimova, Elvira Islamova, Ramziya Marsovna Bolgarova, Ýlsever Rami
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.62534  Pages 24 - 28
Comparisons are a means of reflecting the characteristics of the mentality and transmit national stereotypes and standards from generation to generation.
In each national culture, a distinction and opposition between one's own and another's takes place, since each person is a representative of his own ethnic group. The processes of identification and distinction between “one's own” and “another's” are the basis of all comparison and juxtaposition, therefore, comparisons of the Russian language were chosen as the material of our study. The opposition reflects interethnic and intra-ethnic relations. Representations of “friends” and “strangers” are fixed in the form of stereotypes, the basis of which are the characteristics of the “stranger” obtained by comparison with the “friend”.
The aim of the study is to consider the opposition “friend or stranger” in comparative constructions as one of the ways of perceiving the world in Russian linguistic culture.
The analysis revealed a variety of forms of manifestation and representation in the language of this opposition as a cultural phenomenon. It is presented in comparative constructions, reflecting various relationships, including blood-related, ethnic, linguistic, and others. Particular attention is paid to the peculiarities of verbalization of the “friend or stranger” concept in literary texts and paremias.
The studied materials prove that in many cases “one's own” is perceived as natural, normal in comparison with a “stranger”, and characteristics not corresponding to this norm are often regarded as negative. However, there are constructions where the “stranger” is not hostile, but simply different, different from the “own”, evaluated positively. Literary texts are also characterized by comparisons with negative self-esteem, which is associated with the stereotype of Russians that is widespread among many peoples.
The results can contribute to further study of the world image of representatives of various ethnic groups.

6.wedding ceremony in the outline of tatar prose
Nuriyeva Liliya Failevna, Sayfulina Flera Sagitovna, Luiza Firdusovna Zamalieva, Zhanat Askerbekkizi Aimukhambet
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04880  Pages 29 - 33
This article is devoted to the study of a folk wedding ceremony reflection in a literary text outline as the source of artistic imagery. Wedding ceremonies are one of the most striking and ancient examples of people spiritual culture, which attracted the attention of travelers, researchers, missionaries, and scientists since the 18th century. In the 19th century, the customs and rites of the Tatar people attracted the attention of such famous scholars as the German ethnographer, historian, and archaeologist Karl Fuchs, and the Tatar enlightener ethnographer Kayum Nasyri. In the future, wedding ceremonies were the subject of research by the scientists of the Society of Archeology, History and Ethnography at the Imperial Kazan University named after M. Pinegin, G. Akhmarov, and Y. Koblov.
In the twentieth century a lot of work was carried out concerning the collection and study of ritual folklore, including wedding ceremonies by the scientists of the Institute of Language, Literature and Art at G. Ibragimov Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan.
In this article, the object of our attention is the implementation of wedding ceremonies in the literary texts of Tatar writers.
The aim of the work is to study the function of wedding ceremony inclusion in Tatar fiction of the first half of the 20-th century. The object of this study was the selected works by Tatar writers whose work dates back to the first half of the 20th century: “The fate of the Tatar dirl” by Galimjan Ibragimov, “Son-in-law” by Gayaz Iskhaki, “My Motherland is the green cradle” by Humer Bashirov, and “Ring” by F. Husni, where the wedding rites of the Tatar people are revealed most clearly and widely in the canvas of an artistic text.
Hermeneutical, comparative and cultural-historical research methods are used in the work.

7.visualization of educational material in teaching of a foreign languageuse
Izida I. Ishmuradova, Farida Valiyevna Derdizova, Alfiya M. Ishmuradova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.47560  Pages 34 - 37
The article under discussion is intended to describe one of the teaching techniques, aimed to make the process of receiving a foreign language more successful, and to form a better structure for the obtained information. The author highlights the importance of this technique for the creation of a more interactive and interesting academic activity and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of this technique included in the process of studying the new information.

8.Linguoculturemes Kiyaw (the Bridegroom) and Kelesh (the Bride) in the Tatar Linguistic Worldimage
Fanuza Haydarovna Gabdrakhmanova, Radif Rifkatovich Zamaletdinov, Gulnara Fandasovna Zamaletdinova, Nurila Gabbasovna Shaimerdinova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.02328  Pages 38 - 42
This article deals with the linguoculturological analysis of the linguocultureme кияү/kiyaw (the bridegroom) and кәләш/kelesh (the bride) in the Tatar linguistic worldimage. The choice of the term of linguocultureme is explained by the fact that being a unit of a deeper level than a word, linguoculturemes accumulate in themselves both the linguistic representation per se and the extralinguistic cultural environment closely related to it, reflect the specificity and systematization of realities within the class of objects correlated with a certain feature, therefore, exist as the units of the field. The linguoculturemes кияү/kiyaw (bridegroom) and кәләш/kelesh (bride) touch the realities and rituals of the Tatar people associated with marriage and are comprehended in the linguocultural field of the concept туй/tuy (wedding). The foundation of a family was central, therefore, the choice of a bride and a bridegroom was given great attention to in the Tatar culture. Using the method of linguocultural analysis, we have revealed exactly the qualities a bride and a bridegroom should correspond to. In studies we have considere the realities and rites, such as кияү мунчасы/kiyaw munchasy, кияү коймагы/kiyaw qoimagy, буйдак егет/buidaq eget, ишек бавы/isheq bawy, калым/qalim, кияүләп йөрү/kiyawlep yery, кияү егетләре/kiyaw egetlery, кияү келәте/kiyaw kelety, кияү өе/kiyaw oye, кияү бүләге/kiyaw bulege; бирнә бирү/birne biry, килен төшерү/kilen toshery, су юлы күрсәтү/sy yuly kursety, тел яшерү/tel yashery, карт кыз/qart qiz, associated with the linguoculturemes кияү/kiyaw (bridegroom) and кәләш/kelesh (bride).

9.the specificity of comparison in national linguistic consciousness
Gulnara Khasanzyanova, Elvira Islamova, Ramziya Marsovna Bolgarova, Ýlsever Rami
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.44265  Pages 43 - 46
All human knowledge about the world exists in their consciousness in the form of a picture of the world, and the world’s image that has been gleaned by people of different nationalities in the process of their comprehending the diversity of the world, leaves stamp on a language. Language is considered not as a static language system, but as a means of communication, reflection of the world, an integral component and a bearer of ethnos culture. Language and culture are closely interconnected and interdependent, reflect the man’s worldview. The way of life, culture, individualities of world cognition affect the formation of an ethnolinguistic view of the world, which gives a new turn to objects and phenomena of the reality. Ethnolinguistic world images are distinguished by their originality; they are composed of universal and unique national concepts. Comparative constructions are valuable material for identifying some features of linguistic world images of different ethnic groups, since they have semantic and grammatical planes of expression, being not only a linguistic, but also cognitive category.
The article discusses the comparative constructions of the Tatar and Russian languages as a means of language categorization of the Tatar and Russian views of the world. These constructions are of real interest, since they give us an opportunity to reconstruct the most important stereotypes of national consciousness. The elements of comparative analysis and the method of purposive associative experiment were used as the main research methods.

10.the word of the poet in the music of v. harisov's cantata-elegion “soul” to the poems by m. tsvetaeva
Gulnaz Nailevna Akbarova, Elena Aleksandrovna Dyganova, Elena Nikolaevna Khadeeva, Polina Damirovna Valeeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.43760  Pages 47 - 51
Music is the resonator of a poetic word. It allows you to expand and deepen the perception of the poetic text, influencing the imagination of the listener through a variety of sounds, tones and harmonic colors. The purpose of this study is to reveal the figurative sphere of the literary and poetic text of poems by M. Tsvetaeva and its embodiment through the prism of individual compositional solutions in the cantata of the contemporary composer Vitaly Kharisov.
The research methodology is based on a set of art criticism methods: structural, semantic hermeneutic, musicological analysis of musical and poetic material.
In the cantata cycle, the composer combines seven poems of the poetess, each of which is associated with her tragic fate. The main fastening element is the general atmosphere of sadness, both in poetic and musical text, and the connection of each number with the emotional states of the poetess. Vitaliy Kharisov, who knows the vocal nature of the voice perfectly, turns the choir into an instrument with a special touch on the sound, by the way, necessary to convey all the shades of Tsvetaeva poetry. In interpretation decisions, the composer uses the capabilities of the choral texture, the flexible composition of the performers, various methods of sound production and pronouncing a poetic word. Composer reading of texts by Tsvetaeva reveals the emotional background of poetry and the deepest meanings of the first author.

11.the concept җил/jil (wind) in the tatar linguistic worldview
Fanuza Haydarovna Gabdrakhmanova, Radif Rifkatovich Zamaletdinov, Gulnara Fandasovna Zamaletdinova, Nurila Gabbasovna Shaimerdinova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.48303  Pages 52 - 56
The article is devoted to linguoculturological analysis of the concept җил/jil (wind) in the Tatar language picture of the world based on lexicographic data and the corpus of the Tatar language (“Tugan Tel”). This concept is one of the universal constants and is one of the universal categories of the conceptual picture of the world. The conceptual field is based on the variety of basic lexemes and semantic units and their phrases.
The authors analyzed the concept җил/jil (wind), represented by different parts of speech; the figurative and cognitive characteristics of the concept are revealed through the analysis of the lexical units of the Tatar language (саба җилe/saba jile (warm morning wind), таң җиле/tan jile (dawn wind), үтәли җил/uteli jil (air draft), әҗәл җиле/ezhel jile (wind of death), замана җилe/zamana jile (wind of modernity), вакыт җиле/wakit jile (wind of time), үзгәреш җиле/uzgeresh jile (wind of changes), җил оясы/jil oyasy (windy place, windmill), җил иясе/jil uyase (myth. spirit of the wind), җилкапка/jilqapqa (pole gate), җил тегермәне/jil tegermene (windmill), җил үләне/jil ulene (chalk plant), җил чәчәге/jil chechege (varicella), җил сындырыгы/jil sindirigy (windbreak), etc.), the derivation field of the concept is defined. The analysis resulted in the identification of the etymology and semantic meanings of the vocabulary җил (wind), the classification of groups of lexical units (давыл/dawil, өермә/uyerme, гарасат/garasat, буран/buran, коры җил/qory jil, тайфун/typhoon, шквал/windflaw, шторм/storm), which make up the periphery of the concept җил/jil (wind) in the Tatar language picture of the world.

12.problems of irrationalist and rationalist philosophy of the modern age against the background of crisis of religious consciousness in europe
Evgeniy Karpov
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.85688  Pages 57 - 63
The aim of the study is to provide a philosophical analysis of the irrationalist and rationalist philosophy of the Modern age. The research analyses irrationalistic and rationalistic philosophical directions, studies religious philosophy of the post-scholastic Modern age. The research begins with Lutheranism, then traces the philosophical views of the Enlightenment period and ends with rationalistic and irrationalistic philosophy of the middle and end of the 19th century. The main results of the research can be considered the following: a judgment on the deconstruction of scholasticity and the elimination of mysticism from religious consciousness as a factor in strengthening the influence of materialistic and atheistic philosophy and relativistic principles in religion; the predominance of interest in the Modern age philosophy in the intuitive cognition of faith and God. As a result of the research, the following conclusions are made: deconstruction of scholasticity in the 16th century entailed strengthening of relativistic principles in religious and religious-philosophical consciousness and diffusion of philosophical views like a mechanism of division of living organisms; a significant role in the justification of religious consciousness during the Modern age was played by religious intuition, which in the course of dialectical development created an antithesis in the form of religious phantasmagoria in the materialistic philosophy; elimination of mysticism from religious consciousness created the basis for strengthening the influence of atheistic philosophical directions.

13.Functioning of Polysemantic Words in the Lexicon
sveta Pesina, Lyubov N Churilina, Skvortsova Maria, Natalia V. Kozhushkova, Tatyana Yu. Baklykova, Nina G. Terenteva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.24855  Pages 64 - 69
The article makes an attempt to determine the nature of representation of meanings in the semantic space of the lexicon by revealing the content of semantic structures of polysemantic words. It presents the results of many years of searching in the field of semantic commonality of the meanings of polysemants, which are called “general meaning”. It has been demonstrated that meaning is a diffuse configuration of semantic components formed at the time of speaking and adapted to a specific linguistic and extralinguistic environment. The paper profounds a hypothe-sis that the semantic network of the polysemantic structure of words as a multilevel configuration of meanings is fixed by a dominant invariant meaning. An analysis of the English substantive key using the empirical invariant-component method is presented in evidence of the advanced hy-potheses. As follows from this analysis, the semantic metaphorical clusters of meanings of this word and its lexical invariant have been identified as a set of basic dominant components that form the semantic kernel of the word. The results of the study allow for the conclusion that in order to preserve the semantic integrity of the structure of a word, the semantics of a word is as-sociated with its lexical invariant.

14.Agricultural calendar «Mesyatseslov» as a form of reflection of the traditional culture of the Russian people
Vera V. Demicheva, Olga I. Eremenko, Tatyana V. Yakovleva, Svetlana V. Petrova, Alla P. Tarasova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.79836  Pages 70 - 73
The article is devoted to the issues of reflecting the connection between language and national culture as one of the means of implementing and establishing communication between generations. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the literary folklore source of the agricultural calendar «Mesyatseslov», which reflects an attempt to comprehend human existence, the connection between the life of a Russian peasant and traditions and rituals, which reflect the norms of national ethics and aesthetics. Due to the fact that the folk mesyeslov was associated practically only with the oral linguistic tradition, it most fully represents the national consciousness, a naive picture of the world, a living Russian word that has come down to us from time immemorial.

15.Subjectivity and Identity of The Religious Experience of Modern Students
Ramil Ravilovich Khayrutdinov, Fleura Gabdulbarovna Mukhametzyanova, Natalia Vladimirovna Kovaleva, Nadezhda Alexandrovna Ilin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.76476  Pages 74 - 81
The article is devoted to the identification of the interrelation between subjectivity, identity and religious experience of the individual as a resource potential of university youth, and its structural components and indicators are highlighted. The religiosity self-assessment criterion distinguishes groups of respondents with uncertain, low, medium and high levels of religiosity, in each of them, the features of the content and dominant forms of religious actions, the degree of activity are revealed. It has been proved that the religious experience that emerges in the context of traditional confessions is positively correlated with the identity and subjectivity of a religiously oriented individual and is a psychological resource for overcoming life difficulties. The content of strong correlations of individual activity aimed at self-change with feelings of stability and support due to participation in religious activities indicate that religious experience is indeed a definite resource for the subjectivity of young people with high and medium levels of religiosity. At this stage of the analysis, we can already conclude that groups with an average and high level of self-esteem of religiosity, 61% of respondents, consciously take an active part in religious holidays and other religious activities. At the same time, subjective activity in these groups remains low - the initiative of respondents has an average level of manifestation.

16.«The “lifeworld” of modern student youth (Based on sociological research)»
Ideliya F. Akhmetshina, Lubov M. Yao, Mikhail K. Yao, Taisiya Pushkar
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.62687  Pages 82 - 89
The article deals with the changes that have occurred over the past two decades in the structure of the so-called “lifeworld”, i.e. the structure of social values, identities, ideals, goals, desires, preferences and choices of young students. The paper is based on the materials of numerous qualitative and quantitative sociological studies conducted by the authors and leading sociologists of the country. The experience of countries that went through the same social crisis that Russia faced at the end of the twentieth century provides evidence not only of the erosion of the economic basis of the society but also of a decline of the spiritual sphere. As consequences, we can observe the lack of universally accepted goals and values, the neglect of the political sphere, legal nihilism, exaggerated attention to personal needs, success and achievements. In order to identify the state of the students’ “lifeworld”, a qualitative research method was used: over a number of years, students from leading universities of the Republic of Tatarstan have written texts entitled “My Lifeworld”, which described values, goals, dreams and desires in educational, political, cultural, labour and family relation spheres which are endorsed and denied by the respondents.

17.The uniqueness of person as an object of research in modern theory: problem statement social
Maria Iur’evna Eflova, Olga Iur’evna Poroshenko, Olga Aleksandrovna Maximova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04934  Pages 90 - 95
In the current study, we are talking about a certain marginal characterization of the singularity and personality, which we will designate as "the uniqueness of personal being". From our point of view, within the framework of the dialectical approach, "unique" is interpreted as a category that reveals a set of non-essential features of single objects that form their uniqueness, understood as an ontological state of non-proliferation, irreplaceability and extraordinary. "Unique" as the ultimate form of the singular - the solemness of the singular - has an indirect dialectical transition (in historicity and formation) through the special to the ultimate form of the general - "universal". The dialectical contradiction between the unique and the universal is revealed in particular, through the particular these opposites are both separated and identified. Moreover, these trends are manifested not only at the intrapersonal level but also at the level of intergenerational transfers within the family. The problem of finding a scientific language to describe the uniqueness of personal being, the introduction of the philosophical category "unique" into the methodology of the sociological and anthropological study is still little studied and requires further study.

18.Professional competencies of a teacher in the digital age: Case project "Digital Competencies Development Center"
Kudinov I. V., Kudinova G.f., Aitov V.f., Voroshilova O.l., Elena Klochko, Kiseleva N.p.
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.79663  Pages 96 - 102
The article discusses aspects of the formation of professional competencies of a pedagogical university teachers and students with the introduction of digital technologies and elements of e-learning into the educational process. In conditions of current ongoing global outbreak of coronavirus disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, the transition to distance learning becomes relevant. This accelerated the process of digitalization of the educational process, in which the main directions were determined: hardware-technical, content-technological, staffing. The competencies formed were based on the competencies of WorldSkills Russia and the competencies of the future of Russian Federation Strategic Initiatives Agency. In particular the article reveals the ways of implementing the tasks at the Bashkir State Pedagogical University named after M. Akmulla on the example of the developed project "Digital Competencies Development Center" for working with students and school teachers.

19.The concept and types of lies
Burganova Guzel Vilsurovna, Nasyrova Yulia Mukhametdinovna, Korolev Ivan Igorevich
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.33600  Pages 103 - 106
In the course of its history, mankind for a long time has been striving to define the concept of lie, to study ways to reveal it and, in the future, to study ways to repel it. Representatives of different fields of scientific knowledge have argued so far about the definition of lie, about its signs, forms and types. It is worth noting that over time in different countries and at different periods of the development of the cultural and historical process, the attitude to the concept of lie had been changing, different signs and categories were included in it, it was both banned and justified. Research into the phenomenon of lies are basic to several special sciences, such as philosophy, sociology, psychology, psychophysiology, and a number of others. Therefore, the problematics of defining lie, ways of recognizing and repelling it, as well as the problem of distinguishing lie from other related concepts can be attributed to interdisciplinary one. The very fact that a person presents inaccurate information is used in several meanings. The literature uses a lot of terms, such as “falsehood”, “deception”, “delusion”, “non-disclosure” and others. However, of a variety of names, the most common term, both in everyday life and in scientific literature, is the term “lie”. This paper presents the theoretical foundation of the diagnosis of lie, reveals the concept of lie, its main types and forms.

20.Passionaries in early works by m. Gorky
Olga Nikolaevna Goryacheva, Dilyara Ajratovna Salimzanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.53765  Pages 107 - 111
The article concentrates on the cultural and ideological priorities of projecting “new man” in the early Soviet period. Transformation of the political and spiritual life of Russia at the turn of the 20th – 21st centuries and the formation of Soviet literature are associated with the work by Gorky. His early works develop a new type of character, experiment in genre structure, there is a search for “our” theme, and the choice of the individual style of the writer can be traced. The characters are original. They are inspired by the ideas of community service, which provides literary critics with an opportunity to study the genesis of Gorky’s work under paradigm of Soviet culture. Personal characteristics of the “new people” of the late 19th century can be identified as passionate, according to Gumilev’s doctrine of ethnogenesis, only in the 20th century. Interest in a “new type of person” who could worship to the idea accompanied Gorky throughout his life, representing the ideological and aesthetic basis for literary activity. The research relevance is linked with understanding the meta-subject field of the study of literature. External natural events stimulate changes in society, and creative personalities fixing transformations in poetic and prosaic forms are the first to grasp this. With all the obvious correspondence of Gorky’s characters to passionary characteristics, there were no attempts in literary criticism to apply the theory of ethnogenesis to Gorky’s early stories, which determined the novelty of the study.
The practical implications of the study of the phenomenon of “new man” lies in identifying the qualitative characteristics of “passionarity” in the characters of the works, specific features, forms and methods of creating their images, with consideration for ideological context of Gorky’s early works.

21.Multimodal Text: Author’s Linguopragmatics And Extralinguistic Factors
Dinara Rinatovna Mukhametshina, Juliya Jurevna Danilova, Larisa Borisovna Bubekova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.19981  Pages 112 - 117
This paper is concerned with the current topic of multimodality of text formations containing not one, but many linguistic and non-linguistic (visual) codes. The definition of the concept of a code allows for the consideration of the inclusion of elements of other systems of signs in the text space, in addition to linguistic ones, which together create multimodality of reproduced information. The linguo-cognitive and pragmatic aspects of multimodality are considered by the example of political posters (1930-1953) by Soviet artists V. N. Deni and V. B. Koretsky, representing the unity of verbal and visual information, which is determined by the communicative-cognitive task of an addressant, a pronounced manipulative function. The Soviet government purposefully, actively and correctly used multimodal texts for its own purposes: to form and consolidate in the minds of people an absolutely negative image of A. Hitler and a positive image of I. Stalin via a combination of the most diverse means and devices. Among them, especially vivid and, therefore, frequent are visualization through color and detailing of specific images, the device “artistic litotes”, the actualization of the archetype represented by the antinomy “friend or foe”, each component of which is positively and negatively marked and represented by a number of socially and conceptually significant oppositions “Soviet soldier ↔ fascist”, “Stalin ↔ Hitler”, “red ↔ black”, “life ↔death”, “good ↔ evil”.
It is obvious that the specificity of a multimodal text as a special type of text is largely determined by complex processes of perception, objectification and assessment of reality, that is, the author’s linguistic pragmatics and extralinguistic factors, in particular, the socio-political and economic structure of the country, its culture and history.

22.Phraseological Units Describing Opioid Crisis
Gulina Ildarkhanova, Liliia Mirgalimova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.01488  Pages 118 - 121
The authors define phraseological unit as a linguistic concept, indicate the parameters of phraseological units, their types, and research methods (method of continuous sampling, definitional analysis), describe the influence of language on the style of discourse. This paper discusses the use of phraseological units in a political blog (based on the material of the American blog) to describe the problem (in this case, the opioid crisis) and counter it. The work deals with the question of both figurativeness and ability of phraseological units to incapsulate a large amount of information. The language of blogs is interesting in that it is a fusion of spoken language and written language, respectively, there one can find both clericalism, cliches, and phrasal verbs (which are ranked by some scholars among a number of phraseological units). The paper aims at considering the phraseology of the American blog, namely, its use in describing a specific social problem.
An analysis of the examples has shown that the use of phraseological units in political discourse is usually conditioned by stylistic and rhetorical goals, and the emergence of new terms often occurs due to the modification of phraseological units at the semantic level. The results of the work can be applied in studying lexicology, phraseology and stylistics.

23.Images Of Orphans In Modern Children's Literature
Anton Valerievich Bykov, Nadezhda Nikolaevna Shabalina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.19970  Pages 122 - 126
Orphanhood is one of the most important and urgent social problems in our country; naturally, this topic is reflected in literature, and literary men have their own ideas of the image of an orphan. This topic for modern children’s literature has not yet been studied. This explains the relevance of this topic. The article exposes the most adequate classification of psychological types of children for the analysis of images of orphans by E. I. Morozova. It analyzes two of the most distinctive works for childhood reading on this topic: Where There Is No Winter by Dina Sabitova (2011) and The Children of Dolphins by Tamara Mikheeva (2015), portrays the psychological types of their leading orphans. According to the selected classification, the category of “erudite” prevails in the works, which can be explained by the socio-historical characteristics of the era. Children who have lost their parents in their early age have to mature faster and learn to be accountable for their actions. Social upheaval and hasty marriages are the root cause of orphanhood in contemporary prose for childhood reading. However, the characters can belong to several categories of orphans at once. For example, Pavel from the story Where There Is No Winter simultaneously belongs to the category of “erudite” and “negativists”. And Gulya synthesizes the features of the categories of orphans – “dreamers” and “confused” – this shows a detailed analysis of the complex psyche of the heroes, therefore, a gesture portrait, the technique of rendition with colors, and dream are used in characterization. In the literature of this era one can note a positive view of solving the problem of orphanhood. Thus, works of children’s literature of the 21st century have a happy ending and are replete with affectionateness and warmth.

24.Features of the use of phraseological units, characterizing holiday rituals (case study: english and russian languages).
Dilyara Ajratovna Salimzanova, Olga Nikolaevna Goryacheva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.32154  Pages 127 - 130
The article deals with the description of the lexical features in the use of phraseological units that characterize holiday rituals and ceremonies by the example of languages of different structures. A comparative analysis allows to identify national-specific and universal features of linguistic units by means of which the process of forming the values of ethnos is carried out.
The relevance of this investigation consists in the need to undertake a comparative study in a linguistic and cultural context in order to determine the features of the use of linguistic units that characterize holiday rituals.
The practical research value is that the results obtained can provide a broader understanding of the ways of forming the English and Russian mentality, and also allow to establish the ways of emerging culturally marked phraseological units.

25.Discourse of “little man” in a. P. Chekhov’s stories
Rinat Ferganovich Bekmetov, Irene Vasylievna Mokletsova, Zhanargul Kadyrbekovna Azkenova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.97720  Pages 131 - 135
The article presents an experiment of a discourse approach to the term “little man”. This approach enables to establish its connection with such basic concepts of the Orthodox spiritual and religious tradition as “humbleness”, “humility of mind”, \ “apophathy”. More precise definition of the term as an inability of a lit-erary character to humbleness / humility of mind, as a victim of apophathy, was based on the study of the text and subtext dependence (the mechanism of double eventfulness). Another direction in the study of the double eventfulness of Che-khov’s story was the analysis of the relationship between motif and character. This path makes it possible to compare humbleness / humility of mind with apophathy in the fortune of “little man”.
The choice of two stories by A.P. Chekhov of 1886 – Anyuta and Grief – helps to clarify the literary method of the writer, to draw the border line between realism and existentialism.
As a source of Chekhov’s subtext, a special aspect of the reference has been revealed – along the lines of external and internal reading of the text. Hum-bleness of a personality in the aspect of “non-event” (story Anyuta) has been fea-tured. This is possible due to the twofold eventivity formed by the relationship between text and subtext, spectacular and sound symbolism. The basic narrative techniques, the author’s irony, the opposition of Ion Potapov’s humbleness of mind to the social character of Anyuta’s sacrifice are shown. The specificity of twofold eventivity of the story Grief is characterized from the standpoint of the multi-layered manifestation of the discourse of “little man”.

26.Development and Validation of Foreign Language Speaking Anxiety Scale in light of Facilitative and Debilitative Anxiety
Shima Taat, Moses Stephens Gunams Samuel, Seyed Mostafa Rasoolimanesh, Logendra Stanley Ponniah
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.07830  Pages 136 - 147
The present study aimed to develop and validate a foreign language speaking anxiety scale (FLSAS) based on facilitative and debilitative types of anxiety. A quantitative-deductive approach for a sample size of 347 language learners was adopted to accomplish the objectives of this research. The assessment of the structural model of FLSA as a composite second order construct was conducted using PLS_SEM. Moreover, confirmatory composite analysis was performed to establish nomological validity. The results indicated that the scale can be best explained by the five constructs of communication apprehension, fear of negative evaluation, test anxiety, speech motivation, and self-confidence. The findings revealed that fear of negative evaluation, which previously has been proven to have debilitative effect on student’s performance, have a facilitative effect on student’s speaking efficiency. In the end, the results were discussed and implications of the scale were presented.

27.Tools And Mechanisms Of Motivation Support In The Process Of Training Students Of Higher Educational Institutions
Lina Perelygina, Iryna Rayevska, Olga Chusova, Oksana Horbatiuk, Maryna Tomenko
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.14892  Pages 148 - 158
The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that the current stage of social-economic development is characterized by the emergence of the problem of improving the efficiency of educational activities at all levels of education. Special attention has been paid to the issue of students’ motivation in higher educational institutions in recent years, as it testifies to the quality of educational activities.
Motivation significantly affects the formation of worldview of individuals, their behavioral reactions, internal emotional condition, which in turn affects a person’s perception not only of the world around, but also inner worldview, the adequacy of assessing situations and also the adequacy of their perceptionThe problem of motivation is fundamental in pedagogy and psychology. In our opinion, psychological and pedagogical research among students is of significant practical importance in optimizing the educational process.
The purpose of the study is to analyze the motivational component of students, as well as to identify the most significant motives for learning and the conditions for effective establishment of the development of factors of professional motivation.
In order to achieve the set goals and to determine the means and mechanisms for supporting motivation in the process of preparing students of higher educational institutions, the method of research of motives of educational activity and the method of value orientations have been used.
The practical significance of the results of our research is to determine the motivation of students in order to improve the educational process in higher educational institutions.As a result of practical research, we have concluded that increasing the motivation of students depends on the motivation of the teaching staff.

28.Professional training of primary school teachers (experience of Great Britain, Sweden)
Natalia Kosharna, Larysa Zhuravlova, Alona Nieliepova, Iryna Sidorova, Nataliia Lopatynska
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.82712  Pages 159 - 173
Approaches to the professional education of primary school teachers underwent transformations in the late twentieth and early twenty-first century. The purpose of the study is to find out the algorithms and identify the features of the professional training of primary school teachers on the example of the experience of Great Britain and Sweden. The following methods were used: observation, descriptive method, analysis of the regulatory framework; method of statistical data processing; study and generalization of scientific publications; comparative and comparative methods. The UK and Swedish primary school models have been found to be significantly inferior to the higher education models in which both countries are high in the world rankings. Among the factors of this are teacher training programs. In both countries, there are 13-19 students per primary school teacher, and the trend is growing. This stimulates the government's initiative to regulate the situation. The initiative is implemented in the range of algorithms for obtaining the profession. Ways of training in the UK, such as Initial Teacher Education or Training, Postgraduate Diploma in Education or Postgraduate Certificate in Education, Qualified Teacher Status, Graduate Teacher Program and Registered Teacher Program through the government's School Direct program have been identified. Postgraduate education of primary school teachers is regulated by the programs Continuing Professional Development and In-Service Education and Training. Possible ways of professional training of primary school teachers in Sweden are: specialized university training with a master's degree, courses in Bridging Education Program, Vocational Education Program, Foreign Teacher's Bridging Program, Supplementary Training for Teachers, which lead to the status of certified teacher. Continuous professional development of Swedish teachers is not regulated, it depends on the self-motivation and policy of the administration of educational institutions.

29.Formation of Foreign Language Terminological Competence in Students of Higher Educational Institutions in the Process of Development of Journalistic Skills
Nataliia A. Tsymbal, Nataliia M. Savchuk, Iryna V. Khlystun, Valentina I. Avramenko, Anhelina V. Ostafiichuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.93284  Pages 174 - 181
Our study is intended to experimentally test how the convergent use of documentary TV series and the Learning Catalytics clicker system in teaching of the subject Foreign Language for Professional Purposes affects the formation of foreign terminological competence of future journalists; and how focus group participants perceived such a learning model. The study was quasi-experimental and was based on the use of mixed methods. Statistical data were collected and processed using the following quantitative and qualitative tools: tests to monitor knowledge of foreign language terminology and performance of journalism students (two variants: for pre-test and post-test design), Frederick’s cognitive reflection and decision-making test, and the Rasch measurement model for diagnosing students’ academic motivation. The validation of the results was enhanced by semi-structured interviews for focus group students. The results of this study are logical in relation to the existing results and current practice of teaching Foreign Language for Professional Purposes. The convergent use of documentary TV series and the Learning Catalytics clicker system in the teaching of this subject has a positive effect on the formation of foreign language terminological competence of future journalists in such aspects as knowledge of foreign language terminology by journalism students, their cognitive reflection and speed of decision making, their academic motivation. This model of learning environment is effective because it increases the involvement of students in learning activities, creates a relaxed environment, develops the cognitive sphere of students, and increases their academic performance in general. With authentic videos and clickers, learning a foreign language terminology becomes an exciting experience that allows students not only to consolidate their knowledge, but also to improve their skills of searching and processing information. This learning model is student-centered and reduces teacher dominance, giving way to student independence.

30.The Influence Of Social Reflection To Enhance The Efficiency Of Professional Communication Of The In-Service Teachers In The Settings Of Methodical Work
Kateryna H. Trybulkevych, Alla V. Zaitseva, Nataliya M. Lupak, Ilona M. Dychkivska, Tetiana Y. Bortniuk
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.87894  Pages 182 - 189
The purpose of this study was to identify how the teacher peer feedback training could enhance the efficiency of the professional communication of the in-service teachers and to identify how the sampled teachers perceived the intervention. The study relied on quantitative and qualitative methods such as self-administered online tests, a scale, and a semi-structured interview. A semi-structured focus-group interview was used to identify how the sampled teachers perceived the intervention. It was found that the created teacher peer feedback training environment could be used as leverage of managing the teachers’ communication process that is supposed to stimulate their self-reflection and emotional control which aligns with the reviewed relevant studies.

31.Professional foreign language as a means of increasing the competitiveness of the future specialist
Tsikhotska Olga, Oksana Horbach V., A. Olena Buzdugan, Valentyna Bohatyrets, Serebrianska Irina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.24650  Pages 190 - 199
The purpose of the article: to analyze the training of modern specialists in foreign languages as a means of increasing their competitiveness and professional mobility. In the study, we will consider the dependence of teaching methods for successful application in everyday life. Based on the content analysis of websites, which contains a list of vacancies and resumes of specialists in various fields, and statistical data processing, conclusions were made on the need to master a professional foreign language at the appropriate level of future professionals. The study is based on the concept of intercultural professional communication and the competence approach to the formation of a competitive specialist. It determines the level of professionalism of specialists in the context of foreign language skills. The study is based on the content analysis of the Work.ua website, which contains a list of vacancies and resumes of specialists in various fields and statistical data processing. A lot of conclusions were drawn on the relationship between the regional labor market, competitiveness and professionalism in foreign languages. This article draws the following important conclusions: it is necessary to study a foreign language consistently and systematically; there is also a need to have both communication skills and grammar skills and knowledge for effective communication in foreign languages; the profession affects the level of knowledge of foreign languages and therefore the profession determines the level of competitiveness of the specialist; for more prestigious professions due to the needs of the labor market is characterized by a higher level of salaries, a higher level of knowledge of foreign languages. The level of professionalism determines the competitiveness of the specialist.

32.The Effectiveness Of The Model Implementation Of The Methodological System Of Teaching Ukrainian As A Foreign Language To Medical Students
Maria Tsurkan, Oleksii Vorobets, Yuliia Popoilyk, Yurchak M. Halyna, OLGA NASTENKO
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.21704  Pages 200 - 208
The article describes the results of the model implementation of the methodological system of teaching Ukrainian as a foreign language to medical students. The described methodological system consists of four subsystems: target, content, procedural and controlling-corrective. The target subsystem defines the main goals of teaching foreign students: the development of communicative and professional competences and skills to apply them in the process of solving various communicative tasks of socio-cultural and professional medical spheres. The content subsystem combines linguistic and professional knowledge, providing the formation of the foreigner’s linguistic world view, revealing his individual-psychological qualities, correcting value orientations, providing experience of cognitive and communicative-professional activity necessary for communication with Ukrainian patients in medical practice. The procedural subsystem represents forms, methods and means of teaching, models of the learning content presentation and methodological tools. The controlling-correction subsystem is a complex of diagnostic techniques and test tasks for determining the level of professional-communicative competence. The pedagogical experiment was conducted in three stages: ascertaining, forming and assessment. According to the suggested model three main requirements have been singled out regarding lesson planning and conducting.
The effectiveness of the model implementation of the methodological system is proved by analyzing the indicators (high, medium, low level) of the four basic criteria: motivational, cognitive, communicative-activity, reflective. We found that the level of the professional and communicative competence is higher in those foreign medical students who studied in the experimental group than in the students of the control group.

33.Linguacultural basis of linguistic units’ choice In political texts
Jerome Baghana, Elena V. Bondarenko, Tatiana G. Voloshina, Timur D. Khasanov, Katarina Slobodova Novakova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.20591  Pages 209 - 214
The article is devoted to the study of the cultural basis of linguistic units’ choice in political speeches. The multifunctional language phenomenon of "repetition" in the French language of France and in the variant of French in the Republic of Cameroon. In order to understand the conditions and stages of the Cameroonian variant's formation, brief data of its diachrony is given. The work is based on the material of public addresses of French politicians Emmanuel Macron and François Fillon during the presidential election campaign 2017 and the speech of the President of Cameroon Paul Biya during the presidential election campaign 2018. Based on the current study of the political leaders' texts it was revealed that the repetition is a widely used linguistic device. The definition of repetition is proposed, and its main characteristics are formulated. The idea that the use of repetition depends on extralinguistic factors of influence is being developed. One important extralinguistic factor is the political order of the state. The analysis of contexts shows that this factor determines to some extent the choice and use of language devices in the statements made by the political leaders of the two countries. The digital mass media and the increased speed of information distribution is another extra linguistic factor, which influence is studied in the article. Besides the authors attempt to prove the formation of contexts' connotations through repetitions which contribute to deep comprehension of texts.

34.Fostering Psychological Readiness in Student Educators for Working in Inclusive Groups at the Preschool Institutions
Larysa V. Zdanevych, Alla I. Chagovets, Iryna V. Aprielieva, Liudmyla M. Prytuliak, Milena I. Yaroslavtseva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.72623  Pages 215 - 223
The purpose of the study was how the volunteer internship programme fosters psychological readiness in graduate student educators for working in inclusive groups at the preschool institutions. The study relies on quantitative methods to measure the dependent variables in the sampled group of participants before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a treatment. The qualitative method such as the focus-group semi-structured interview was used to validate the data yielded from the above measurements. The students’ efficacy in inclusive practices and resilience were the variables for the study. The volunteer internship programme for the student preschool teachers was effective and brought both tangible and intangible benefits to the students. Due to participation in the programme, the students boosted their professional competence, personal strength, and social efficacy with their colleagues and peers. The study contributed to the existing research in terms of the integrated use of influences on the students' psychological readiness. The psychological readiness to work with the inclusive children was regarded as the element of student teachers’ self-efficacy which was supposed to be trained using certain educational strategies. It also added to the research on the ways of training (teacher) students’ resilience and best practices of teacher support and using internships to make the student teachers familiar with the repertoire of inclusive teaching and adapt them to the inclusive environment.Training the student educators to be ready to work in inclusive groups at the preschool institutions complies with the Action Plan (2019-2025) developed to implement Montenegro Inclusive Education Strategy for 2019-2025 [1] seen as a follow-up document to the UNESCO Salamanca Statement [2] outlining principles, policies, and practice in special needs education. In this regard, a lack of psychological readiness in educators seems to be the greatest issue when implementing the strategy.

35.The Use Of The Case- Study Method In Education System
Almazhai Egenisova, Ainagul Tautenbayeva, Gulden Zhubangalieva, Nazgul Aydnaliyeva, Aigulden Togaibayeva, Aliya Suguraliyeva, Meiramgul Yessengulova, Dinara Ramazanova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.15870  Pages 224 - 227
The article deals with interactive learning, case study method, pedagogical situations are offered. And also types of cases are typical: practical cases, training cases, research cases, etc. The advantages of the method are reported.

36.Linguistic Components Of Intercultural Communications On An Example Of A Multicultural Society: Comparative Studies Of Cultures
Firova I.P, Glazov M.M, Solomonova V.N, Red’kina T.M, Pudovkina O.I
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.26032  Pages 228 - 236
Intercultural communication is considered a progressively developing trend, both abroad and in modern Russia. The concept of Western research on this topic is interdisciplinary approaches this situation is conditioned by the need for a multilateral analysis of the processes taking place in this field. Attention is focused on studying the barriers to communication of representatives of many socio-cultural systems. The information reflects the experience of using Western methodology to analyze the problems of intercultural interaction.
The main barriers that reduce the effectiveness of interactions are the differences in cognitive schemes that are relevant for representatives of certain cultures (in particular linguistic and non-verbal schemes, moments of public consciousness). The results of the study do not allow the dissemination of conclusions to an extremely broad social context. But due to the experience of interpreting the problems of intercultural communication, information is useful for organizations that function in the field of education, as well as leading dialogue between Russia and the West.It was possible to identify approaches to the definition of intercultural communication as an important branch of knowledge in the context of globalization, analyzing domestic and foreign traditions. The factors that predetermine the effectiveness of communication, as well as methods for overcoming complexities in the course of intercultural communication, are listed. The approaches that form the basis of the process of preparing people for life and work in a multicultural society, in the context of intercultural communication, are at the center of attention.Thanks to the culture of communication, it is possible to achieve mutual understanding between different nations, to form national self-consciousness, as well as the effective development of traditional cultures.

37.Symbolism Of Green Color Representation In English And German Journalistic Texts
POPOVA L.G, Biryukova Evgeniya Viktorovna, Nifanova Tatiana Sergeevna, Guseva Alla Efimovna, Boyarkina Anastasiya Andreevna
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.42713  Pages 237 - 243
In this paper on the basis of the English and German journalistic texts the specific usage of the vocabulary denoting the green color that has the status of a certain symbol is established. The aim of this study is to clarify the similarities and differences in the use of lexical units that convey the symbolism of the green color in two closely related languages: English and German. To achieve this goal the following tasks were solved: to determine the semantics of words, representing green color in English and German journalistic texts compared to their dictionary meanings; to set the frequency of using data of lexical units in the texts; to compare and find out the specifics of symbolic representation of green color through certain lexemes in the texts of this kind in the languages being compared.

38.Psychological Problems In A Process Of Intercultural Communication
Panko Iu.v, Myavlina N.Z, Shvedov L.A, Kuvshinova E.E, Taganov M.V
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.14227  Pages 244 - 252
In this article, the problem of the socio-cultural and pragmatical bases of an interpersonal communication is reviewed; socio-cultural regulation of interaction between partners, representatives of various linguocultural communities, which is lead by means of norms, communication, postulates is identified. With this purpose, the fact that the speech acts cultural scenarios are specific, e.g., the "refusal,” "offer,” "request,” "requirement,” "compliment,” "criticism,” "disagreement,” "dispute"and have a national specificityis proved by means of analyzing and comparing speech acts in different cultures. Considerable divergences in their use as means of social control in intercultural situations are shown by analysis of an intercultural interaction between partners from positions of realisation and use of social (generated by society) communicative postulates.

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