The article revealed the fact that communication is one of the main indicators of the culture of border control at the border crossing. Border guards are the first to meet and be the last to see off all those who cross the state border. The authors concluded that one of the main properties of modern man is the ability to use their language skills in completely different situations and under different circumstances. The course "Fundamentals of the theory of language communication” is the disciplines that have important theoretical and practical significance, as the ability to communicate is not only the correct formulation of utterances according to grammatical, lexical, stylistic and other requirements but the knowledge of the real contexts of certain statements is important. The authors focused the special attention on the structure of the discipline "Fundamentals of the theory of language communication”, which is compulsory educational component for second-year cadets specializing in "Philology". of the Bohdan Khmelnytskyi National Academy of the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine and is studied during the 4th semester at the Department of Foreign Languages. The structure of studying this educational component by cadets have been revealed in detail including such topics: General principles of speech communication, Communication as a speech activity, Organization of language code in communication, Regulations of language communication, Culture of language communication, Tactical and strategic potential of language communication, Signs and factors of effective and ineffective language communication, Means of communication.Keywords: educational component, Fundamentals of the theory of language communication, program learning outcomes, competencies, future border guard officers.