E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 4 (7)
Volume: 4  Issue: 7 - 2020
1.generation of the structure and parameters of training tasks
Chulpan Bakievna Minnegalieva, Anis Fuatovich Galimyanov, Veronika Vladimirovna Bronskaya
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.02997  Pages 1 - 8
Electronic learning resource, online courses are widely applied in a learning process. As a rule, they obligatory include knowledge control block, which should contain sufficient quantity of tasks. Filling in tasks’ databases of such resources takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore it is a crucial task to explore ways of automatic generation of learning tasks. The article describes the techniques for generating tasks based on enumeration, based on information about the values of properties of objects and information about the relationship between objects, and based on information provided in the form of formulas and graphs. The properties of objects were stored in the databases. Algorithms for compiling questions to control knowledge in history, geography, and computer science have been developed. The obtained algorithms can be used for preparing the control measuring materials for such disciplines as chemistry, information theory. Value of given examples is in their possibility to replicate, extend to areas of other subjects. This allows inclusion into tasks databases of online courses sufficient number of tasks. Given algorithm can be used in composition of real time training tasks, without preservation of tasks wording in database.

2.From Ego to Eco: sociocultural discourse of the postmodern digital society
Maria Eflova, Olga Poroshenko, Olga Maximova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.03411  Pages 9 - 14
The purpose of the article is to show the shift of emphasis in modern concepts from anthropocentricity and rationalism to bio, eco, post-humanism and irrationalism in the digital era. The project known as ”Enlightenment” is over. What is the 21st century going to offer instead?

3.antonymic-synonymous connections in the lexical system of the tatar language
Svetlana Radanisovna Nikishina, Alfiya Shaukatovna Yarullina, Milyausha Ravilevna Shaimardanova, Leysan Atlasovna Akhmetova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04274  Pages 15 - 19
This study examines the relationship between antonymy and synonymy of the Tatar language. The relevance is due to the fact that the issue of studying the semantic connections between antonyms and synonyms is one of the insufficiently studied linguistic phenomena not only in Tatar linguistics, but also in Türkology. Interaction of antonymic words with synonyms is a special problem. This study examines two types of connection - radial and linear, which exist between the words of two synonymous series that enter into antonymic relations. The criteria for the interaction of antonyms with synonyms are analysed and the manifestations of systemic relations in vocabulary are shown. As a result of the analysis, it is concluded that synonymous series in antonymic opposition constitute an oppositional unity associated with a generic concept, and synonymous and antonymic relations link different levels of language in the unity of synonymous series and antonymic oppositions. During the study, a descriptive method was used, which included observation and classification of the material under study.

4.Ethnic-Culture Development Through Arts and Leisure Activities
Anastasiia F. Iudintseva, Gulnur R. Kamalova, Roza Sh. Akhmadieva, Anastasiia V. Fakhrutdinova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04706  Pages 20 - 25
Culture can be found in the emotions, actions, and everyday entertainment of people. Space spent on leisure time is one of the most critical areas of urban success. Based on the theoretical and practical analysis of researching the musical-esthetic culture of the society, the role of museum space and culture-leisure activity in developing the personality musical-esthetic culture is defined. The leading research methods are analysis of the Russian and foreign literature to identify the main component of the musical-esthetic culture – musicality, and effective techniques for its development; music-making – an active, creative method used in the museum space with people of different ages; and polling, which helped to identify the interests and needs of the respondents in developing the musical-esthetic culture. The research comprises 51 respondents divided into three age groups (18–32, 36–55, 60+ y.o.). As the research is not finished yet, the preliminary results are presented, which showed that the applied techniques effectively attract the public to elite musical culture (stable attendance of the lectures), promote active, creative practices (elementary music-making, painting emotions and impressions caused by pieces of music), and help to reveal the interests and needs of the public in a newly formed group of instrumental music-making.

5.General Roots, General Spirituality: Literary Relationship of Tatar And Karakalpak Literatures in The Aspect of The Dialogue of Cultures
Aigul Ildusovna Minnegalieva, Liailia Ihsanovna Mingazova, Malika Tleubergenovna Djumamuratova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.07769  Pages 26 - 31
The article discusses the works of Turkic writers, including Tatar and Karakalpak, in which close interaction is clearly manifested at the synchronous and diachronic levels. On the example of such works as the heroic epic “Manas”, “Kitaby Dede Korkut” by the Oguzes, as well as the poems of Kul Gali “Kissa-i Yusuf”, the works of Karakalpak and Tatar writers such as Kul Ali, Akmulla, S. Hakim, R. Minnullin, Aginiyaz, Berdakh, Seyfulgabit Mazhitova, Abbaz Dabylova and others revealed the literary and cultural relationships of the Turkic peoples. Among them, the Karakalpak poet Tleubergen Zhumamuratov stands out. The article discusses the history of the creation, study, analysis and publication of the poems of T. Zhumamuratov in the Tatar and Karakalpak languages. The article concludes that, despite the national differences of the Turkic peoples, they are united by common literary roots, common goals and interests, moral, spiritual and cultural values. Once again, the fact is confirmed that the literature of the Turkic peoples is characterized by an abundance of authors and works, a variety of genres and poetic forms, ideological and thematic wealth and a high artistic level.

6.The Analysis of the English And Kazakh Idioms with Lexical Components "Truth" And "Lie"
Ainur Nurlanovna Shuinshaliyeva, Nailya Gabdelkhamitovna Mingazova, Rafis Rafaelevich Zakirov, Shuinshaliyeva Ainur Nurlanovna, Mingazova Nailya Gabdelkhamitovna, Zakirov Rafis Rafaelevich
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.27676  Pages 32 - 37
This article discusses idioms and phraseological units with lexical components "truth" and "lie" in English and Kazakh. The purpose of this article is to identify and describe such relevant concepts of modern linguistics as "phraseology", "idiom". The relevance of this article is due to the importance of using phraseological units in everyday communication since it is such properties and qualities of phraseological units as imagery and unity of meaning that make our speech brighter, more emotional, more colourful and expressive, more eloquent, more picturesque regardless of whether we speak English or Kazakh. This article also presents the most famous and popular idioms and phraseologies in English and Kazakh with the components "truth" and " lie " and examined their functioning in the speech of these two languages. Various examples were also given using phraseological units in English and Kazakh. Idioms with these lexical components have a wide range of meanings (mislead the interlocutor, cause moral harm, mystify, deceive, etc.) and are a special subject of reflection of the speaker.

7.English phraseology. Idioms with a color component
Aigul M.Mulyukova, Zhanargul A. Beisembayeva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.36450  Pages 38 - 42
This article deals with the phraseological collocations of the English language and their classification. Since there is no single classification of English phraseological units, the article presents one of the most common thematic classification, namely the idioms with a color component. The object of this paper is to study these idioms. The means for studying are the analysis of scientific literature, the use of special dictionaries. The idioms with the components designating red, black, white, blue, green, yellow, gray colors can be distinguished among all the variety of colors. Phraseological locutions, especially the idioms with colors, elicit not only cognition interest, but are an impetus to further advanced study of the English language. Although the vast audience of English learners use the idioms rarely, it should be noted that one can easily demonstrate one’s proficiency in a language with the help of phraseological phrases. The materials of the study may be useful by educators and researchers involved in professional linguistic research and training

8.When interrogatives lack interrogation: questions as indoctrination carriers in Egyptian presidential speeches
Ayman Farid Ahmed
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.61687  Pages 43 - 53
This article investigates three types of questions in one of President El-Sisi’s improvised speeches: wh questions, yes-no questions, and alternative questions. The main objective of the paper is to hypothesize that questions, irrespective of their type, do not necessarily seek information, as is usual in their semantic usage, but they serve as meaning indoctrination carriers. In so doing, this study tries to show how certain presidential meanings are linguistically indoctrinated by questions. The paper draws on inspirations from Speech acts theory (Austin 1962; Searle 1969, 1976; Yule, 1996). Two main findings are reported in this study: first, El-Sisi uses questions to influence his addressees’ attitudes rather than to prospect and/or stimulate their verbal performance. Second, questions are employed in the speech to initiate a cognitive link that operates as a communicative channel through which specific presidential meanings are indoctrinated.

9.developing a methodology for assessing high school students’ attitude to educational activities
Nailya Nurgayanovna Askhadullina, Liliya Rinatovna Khaliullina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.41275  Pages 54 - 58
The requirements for a modern school focus on achieving the effectiveness of educational activities of educational subjects. In these conditions, the personal effectiveness of the educational activity of pupils is the basic component of the process oriented towards increasing the effectiveness of an educational organization as a whole, which determines the trends in its change. Achievement of personal educational activity effectiveness by schoolchildren is largely due to the attitude of educational subjects (pupils, their parents and teachers) and the attitude is formed on the basis of an assessment of the pupils’ educational activity results. Primary attention regarding the indicated problem should be paid to the attitude of schoolchildren to learning activities. The foregoing determines the relevance of developing a methodology for assessing pupils' attitudes towards learning activities.
The paper presents the results of the ascertaining experiment conducted in order to identify the attitude of pupils (grades 8-11) to learning activities.
The theoretical significance of the study is that the constituent components of the methodology for assessing the attitude of pupils to educational activities (motive-goal-means-control and reflection-correction) are scientifically substantiated.
Practical significance of the research is represented by development of methodological recommendations for teachers on assessing the educational activities of pupils, based on the discrepancies and advantages of educational activities identified during the survey of pupils of grades 8-11.

10.antonyms of english and kazakh languages and their structural features
Nurgul Marksetovna Tukeshova, Fanuza Kharisovna Tarasova, Ilmira Kanatovna Yerbulatova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.41713  Pages 59 - 63
Despite the fact that English and Kazakh languages are rich in antonyms, which are universal phenomenon, in particular, the comparative study of antonyms in English and Kazakh languages is almost incomplete. In order to supplement it, the article provides an overview of the concept of antonyms in English and Kazakh languages, and reveals how often antonyms have been studied by other researchers. Conducted analysis of antonyms in English and Kazakh languages reveals the structural features of each language, their similarities and differences. Also, examples of antonyms as part the phraseological units with antonymous components were given, which were taken and analyzed from lexicographic dictionaries of the two studied languages, and based on the analysis of the dictionaries, it was determined how often different root and single-root antonyms occur. The practical significance of this work may affect its use in the teaching of the two languages under study, in comparative linguistics.

11.The Impact of Linguistic Cleavages on Spanish Regional Policy: the Case of Catalonia
Aigul Zaripova, Aidar Zakirov
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.42103  Pages 64 - 67
Spain is a spectacular example of a state in which the issue of linguistic rights of regional communities remains a matter of dispute between the political forces of the center and the regions.
The article performs a Catalonia autonomous region based analysis of the key areas of language policy, as well as the features of the existing language situation in the region. Central and regional authorities are considered as the subjects of language policy, their role in the preservation and protection of the regional language is evaluated. The language issue has repeatedly become the cause of a conflict between the center and the region. The linguistic cleavage having developed over the centuries of discrimination in the use of regional languages has not been completely surmounted even today, which becomes one of the prerequisites for the emergence of separatist sentiments in the bilingual region of Spain.
The local language is of particular importance for the regional community, acting as an instrument for its unity and political mobilization. An appeal to the uniqueness of culture and language contributes to regional identity and strengthens the opposition of the regional community to the Spanish majority.

12.Aspects of Comparative Study of Elegy in Russian And Tatar Poetry of ХIХ-ХХ Centuries
Chen Chen, Alsu Zarifovna Khabibullina, Elena Ivanovna Zeifert
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.43265  Pages 68 - 72
It was revealed that the elegy did not enter the circle of traditional genres of Tatar poetry, despite the fact that many of the lyric works of Tatar authors are elegant in sound: “Broken hope”, “National melodies” of Tukay, “Morning wind if you fly in our direction”, “Will the wind rustle?” Dardmenda. It has been established that elegy as a genre of the Russian poetry is homologous to the elegiac mode of art in the national literature, namely, those works in which the memory of the lyrical hero of his past, his heightened sense of a violation of harmony with the universal being, acquires value. The actual basis of the research is formed by the elegies of Pushkin ("Desire") and Rob. Akhmetzyanova “Elegiya (Bu oyadan ochty koshlar)” - “Elegy (Birds flew from the nesting place”), “Ozata bara ak divarlar” - “We are escorted by white stone walls”. The analysis of multilingual elegies is based on the diachronous principle of comparing literature. The study found that poetics elegy Rob. Akhmetzyanova is close to the methods of Russian elegiac poetry of the XIX century. However, the ratio of subjective and objective in his works (lyrical hero and nature) is presented in a different, less pronounced form of contrast than in the Russian tradition. In addition, Tatar elegies are based on a synthesis of the studied genre with other artistic forms of national poetry of the 2nd half of the 20th century, and above all, idylls.

13.Genre Originality in Literary Criticism of Fatih Husni
Dina Reshitovna Sabirzyanova, Tagir Shamsegalievich Gilazov, Flera Sagitovna Sayfulina, Landysh Giniyatovna Latfullina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.44153  Pages 73 - 77
The article is devoted to the study of the literary and critical activity of the famous Tatar writer, publicist and playwright Fatih Husni (1908-1996). The subject of the research is the identification of genre features of F. Husni's critical heritage. A feature of his work in this field is the creation of a literary portrait of the writer based on a comprehensive study of the literary works of a particular author. To date, there are no scientific works devoted to the analysis of the genre system of F. Husni’s literary and critical texts, which is the novelty of this study. The first critical materials under study were published during a difficult period of development of literary criticism – in the 1930s. Despite the fact that his main activity was literary creativity, F. Husni also followed the literary process, regularly expressed his attitude to the trends in the development of literature, noting literary finds, creative successes, as well as shortcomings in the literary and aesthetic searches of individual writers. The creative peak of the writer in the field of literary criticism can be considered his work in the 1960s-1980s. The article makes evidence-based conclusions about the activities of F. Husni in the field of Tatar literary criticism, in enriching its genre system, expanding the subject. The use of the principle of historicism in close connection with comparative-historical, typological and analytical research methods made it possible to reveal the genre system and features of the genre of F. Husni's literary and critical heritage.

14.Exercise of The Right to Use the Native Language by Participants in Criminal Proceedings in The Context of International Legal Positions
Aleksandr Iurievich Epikhin, Vasilii Dzhonovich Potapov, Larisa Gennadievna Tatianina, Ekaterina Pavlovna Grishina, Andrei Viktorovich Mishin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.45822  Pages 78 - 83
This article tries to review the international legal positions to be met by each state in ensuring the right of a participant in criminal proceedings to use his native language or the language he speaks and providing such a person with an interpreter in order to exercise this right. The international community has developed documents that contain generally recognized legal norms in regulating the application of the right to use their native language by a person who does not speak the language of legal proceedings and with the help of an interpreter free of charge. The developed legal approaches are interconnected and complement each other, while they serve as a certain reference point for bringing national legislation in line with international requirements. The exercise of the right under consideration ensures the protection of the rights of participants in criminal proceedings. Based on the review of international legal acts and decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, the features and problems of exercising the right under consideration in multinational states are identified, proposals are formed to ensure the right of participants in criminal proceedings to use their native language in accordance with international standards. Ensuring the right to use the native language is a guarantee of the rights of participants in criminal proceedings. It ensures high-quality and effective proof in a criminal case, provided that persons who do not speak the state language are provided with a professional interpreter capable of efficiently translating the information.

15.Interethnic Linguocultural Model Of Culinary Names
Leonova A. I, Abdol E. D, Temirtassova A. T, Abdrahmanova N. B, Tleuova A.S, Karabalina S. K, Zhubaikulova D. Z, Adilbayeva E. E
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.50455  Pages 84 - 90
The paper addresses the issues of arranging culinary names in the English, Russian and French languages and cultures into interethnic linguocultural model of culinary names. The undertaken research explores the subject from the linguocultural perspective. Cultural linguistics (Rus. lingvokulturologia) is a multidisciplinary area of research which combines methodologies of related fields. It is primarily concerned with the interaction and relationship between language and culture on different levels of analysis.
The interplay between language and culture is multi-faceted. Language is considered a constituent element and a pivotal phenomenon of a people’s culture. Simultaneously, culture is encoded in and communicated through the national language. Therefore, language should not be studied separately from culture [Leonova, Abdol, 2018: 125].
Culture is a semiotic system which has the ability to transfer information. Its main function is the one of collective memory, which is characterized by accumulation [Lotman, 1993: 327]. Literary texts can be regarded as depositaries of culture. In literary texts, culture is presented through a variety of manifestations. Apart from information about national history, geography, economics, customs and traditions etc., they also contain a lot of valuable information about culture-specific elements, also known as realia. In linguistics, realia can be understood as both objects of reality and the names of these objects. The proposed research deals with one type of realia, namely culinary dishes.
The article observes the description of interethnic linguocultural model of culinary names (Russian, English and French), which are considered national for each culture under analysis. Its main criteria are revealed: zone organization (core (national culinary names), intervening layer (intervening culinary names) and periphery (historisms, archaisms, limited peripheral culinary names)); mobility, interpenetration of lexical units from one culture into another. Bidirectional movement is observed inside the cultures: peripheral culinary names may become intervening culinary names and vice versa.

16.Global Analysis of Accountability for Fake News Spread About the Covid-19 Pandemic in Social Media
Alexandra Yuryevna Bokovnya, Zarina Ilduzovna Khisamova, Ildar Rustamovich Begishev, Elina Leonidovna Sidorenko, Alexey Nikolaevich Ilyashenko, Alexander Yurievich Morozov
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.50470  Pages 91 - 95
In this article, it was tried to study the liability issues for the distribution of Fake-news on social networks in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. The influence of fakes has become so widespread that it is necessary to take a number of emergency measures at the state level aimed at their distribution limitation. The authors analysed in detail the main approaches of states to fake news distribution regulation in the world, especially during the pandemic. They noted low efficiency of the adopted methods of legal regulation and the extremely low intelligibility of the social network audience in fakes and real content determination. We believe that society, represented by international organizations, the governments of all countries of the world, and technology companies administering social networks, should think about ethical principle adoption that allows to limit the distribution of fakes, strengthen work on the development of false content filter programs and increase the media literacy of social network users.

17.Features of Artistic Attributes and Figurative Interpretation of The Works of Rustem Shamsutov
Liliya Rinatovna Mukhametzyanova, Lyajsan Habibulhakovna Kadyjrova, Timur Rashitovich Kadyirov
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.52297  Pages 96 - 100
The current study is devoted to the attempt of art criticism description and philosophical analysis of the artworks and part of the creativity of the Tatar artist R.I. Shamsutov. The significance of Rustem Shamsutov's work occupies a special place in the history of the fine art of Tatarstan: having revived the forgotten art of calligraphy, he moved it from the category of original creativity to the field of professional fine art. He did not canonize the old techniques and artistic means of shamail, but using them to express his ideas and believes, raised shamail to a qualitatively different level, giving it a modern and individual significance. Rustem Shamsutov is not only a versatile and multi-faceted artist but also a researcher of the aesthetics and history of shamail. The artist creates his own variations of shamail, executed in an elegant calligraphic script. It is noteworthy that the artist develops two main directions: the first one - classic shamils, made on glass, where the master uses the language of original folk art, such as splints, which captivate the audience with sincerity and simplicity; the second is the works that represent a variant of modern abstract painting, that more related to the pictorial beginning than to calligraphic artworks.

18.A Meta-analysis of Educating Second Language Learners through Technology
Fatma Köprülü, Behcet Öznacar, Özcan Ýlginç Demirsu
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.66934  Pages 101 - 107
The rapid development in technology forces us to make some changes to the existing education system. Since, the future of education is about to access learning and collaboration, both globally and locally. Thus it can be said that teaching and learning are going to be social. In this study, the meta-analytic survey method is used as it is a method of combining the results of different studies. For this purpose, experimental and quasi-experimental studies examining the academic success between the years 2009-2019 are examined. Higher Education Council National Thesis Center (YÖK), Google Academic databases and ULAKBÝM are taken as basis in the measurement of the researches included in this study. As a result of the literature review, a general view was obtained by combining Meta-analyses with 53 studies on academic success which is appropriate to the research problem. The effect size values of the studies included in the meta-analysis are calculated using the CMA Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) program. The overall effect size on academic achievement was found to be moderate with 0.700 according to the random-effects model. The results have shown that using technological devices in foreign language teaching has a notable level of dominance.

19.description of weather phenomena in the russian folk riddles
Nailya Ivanovna Faizullina, Radif Rifkatovich Zamaletdinov, Nailya Nuryjhanovna Fattakhova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.71135  Pages 108 - 111
Folk riddle was designed to establish how clearly in the mind of a particular person the idea of the surrounding world was formed. The knowledge tested by the riddle served as a guarantee of mastering the necessary knowledge and the basis for moving to the next step of the social ladder. Riddles were arranged in a certain order and required a certain skill of the mind. So, one of the first riddles were about natural phenomena (rain, wind, frost, snow). In this article, we consider the features of denotation representation of the designated cluster, the main characteristics that were used as the basis for drawing up a figurative description. The frequency of access to these denotations relative to the selected cluster, as well as their inclusion in complex riddles. The research uses the method of description, linguistic and cultural commentary, which allow us to draw conclusions about the key categories of the surrounding world perception by an archaic person. The authors come to the conclusion that the speed of the denote, its inaccessibility, invisibility, and tremendous impact on the surrounding world were important for describing denotation. It is established that a number of riddles are based on the description of a person's feelings after interacting with a particular denotatation. It claim that it is typical for the riddles of this cluster to use an anthropomorphic metaphor to put in the subject of action.

20.Genre Characteristics of American Twiplomacy Discourse
Polina Iurevna Ganzhelyuk, Svetlana Salavatovna Takhtarova, Adel Rustemovna Ilyasova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.71601  Pages 112 - 117
All facets of life, including foreign relationships, have been influenced by the Internet revolution. This revolution has also transformed diplomacy as a medium of foreign policy. Recently the scholars have marked the diplomatic discourse as the separate type of discourse, as it is significantly related to the life of society. Nowadays, there are numerous sources which can make it possible to get and comprehend the diplomatic discourse. Doubtless, such sources include the media: radio, television, Internet and especially, social networks. The article describes the linguopragmatic peculiarities and communicative strategies of one of the genres of digital diplomatic discourse – Twitter diplomacy (Twiplomacy). The study outlines and describes the main genres and subgenres of institutional and personalized Twiplomacy, such as a tweet and BIO. The article shows that Twitter messages of diplomatic institutions and diplomats use a range of communicative strategies (informative, judgmental, and argumentative) and include lexical, syntactic, and stylistic peculiarities that serve to influence target audience and build a positive image of a diplomat or an institution.

21.Russian And Western European Borrowings in The Novels of The Tatar Writer G. Iskhaki
Gulyusa Kurbangalievna Ismagilova, Dilyara Shamilevna Shakirova, Olesya Viktorovna Zabavnova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.79095  Pages 118 - 122
This article is devoted to the Russian and Western European borrowings in the novels of the Tatar writer G. Iskhaki. Literature is one of the types of art that artistically and figuratively reflects a person's life. Writers depicting the actuality of real-time, resort to various mysterious concepts. These new concepts force researchers to look for explanations of figurative and expressive means. This article is about borrowings in the works of the Tatar writer G. Iskhaki. Some foreign words did not preserve their original meaning. The words were endured many phonetic and morphological changes. Such words were reckoned to base on the uniqueness, ambiguity. It should also be noted that borrowed words occupy a certain place in the analyzed literary works. Borrowing occurs in the result of the historical changes, reformations. A large number of these words is connected with certain periods in the history of the Tatar nation. Some borrowed words represent the essential base of the modern literary language. There are a lot of foreign words (especially Russian and Western European) which became the usual, customary vocabulary in the literary works.

22.Russian And Chinese Communication Styles In ADDRESSING
Chan Wanjun, Dinara Rakhimova, Aleftina Chernysheva, Zijai Rakhele Ganbar
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.82621  Pages 123 - 127
In the current study, it was tried to discuss Russian and Chinese communication styles in the field of circulation. The style of communication is the features of communicative behaviour, which are the traditional habits of the people, manifested in the preference for the use of certain means of communication in interpersonal interaction. In connection with the contact increase between Russia and China, it is relevant to consider the Russian and Chinese communication styles that affect the use of the most frequent etiquette unit - addressing. The purpose of this article is to identify the characteristics of the Russian and Chinese communication styles in the field of addressing. It is proved that: 1) the national specifics of appeals in Russia and China are determined by such cultural parameters as social, or horizontal distance, and status, or vertical distance; 2) in terms of social distance, Russia and China belong to collectivist cultures, which are based on contract relations between the members of society, accompanied by tactile communication, according to status - to the cultures with a status-oriented style of communication, marked by a high level of power distance - the dependence of relations on the hierarchy of interlocutors and their status; 3) despite the fact that Russia and China are collectivist cultures, the socio-psychological distance between the communicants in Russia is less than in China.

23.employing the text complexity paradigm to analyse dramatic texts: some considerations
Safin Ildar Khamzovich, Olga Vladislavovna Bukach, Temirbolat I. Kenshinbai, Mariyash Sh. Dzhumagulova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.83723  Pages 128 - 132
This paper explores the ways to measure text complexity of original and translated dramatic texts in order to establish means of conveying individual style of each particular author. The methods employed include stylistic, linguistic and culture-based analysis of the text, comparative and contrast analysis of the original and translated texts, as well as the analysis of the thematic net. Special attention is paid to the referential cohesion, which is viewed the most relevant and important of text complexity quantitive factors while dealing with the particular texts that are the focus of the given article. The author suggests that the model of the analysis described is employed while analyzing texts translations of plays in order to ensure that translated texts do not lack specific language features characteristic for a particular author, thus creating translations that will reflect the individual style of a playwright as precisely as possible and, consequently, have the same emotional impact on the reader and, ultimately, the spectator.

24.Manipulative strategies of positive/negative presentation in George Orwell’s Animal Farm: a critical discourse analysis
Khaled Mohammed Al-Asbahi, Ayman Farid Ahmed
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.04909  Pages 133 - 142
This paper presents a Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) of manipulative strategies of positive/negative presentation in George Orwell’s Animal Farm (1944). The paper’s main objective is to explore the manipulative purposes beyond positive presentation of selfness and negative presentation of otherness in the selected novel. Two research questions are addressed here: first, what are the different strategies of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation encoded in Orwell’s Animal Farm? Second, to what extent are these strategies employed linguistically in the discourse of the novel to manipulate discourse recipients? The analysis covers some CDA strategies, including justification, using false statistics, falsification of history, and competency, for positive self-presentation; and accusation, criticism, using ambiguous words, and recurrent rumors, for negative other-presentation. In so doing, the paper draws on two main approaches: the first is Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough 1989, 1995; van Dijk, 1993), and the second is van Dijk’s (1997a) model of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation. The paper concludes that through strategies of positive self-presentation and negative other-presentation writers/speakers can encode ideologies that aim to influence recipients’ attitudes.

25.Mythologization And Demyfologization In the Tatar Poetry of the 1960‒1980s
Landysh Robertovna Faezova, Nurfiya Marsovna Yusupova, Gulfia Rasilevna Gaynyllina, Tagir Shamsegalievich Gilazov, Aigul Raisovna Gilmutdinova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.86548  Pages 143 - 148
The article is devoted to the study of the features of mythologization and demythologization in the Tatar poetry of the 1960s and 1980s against the background of a change in literary, aesthetic and sociocultural orienting points. It reveals the forms of mythologization and demythologization, the transformation of mythological images and plots in lyrical and lyrico-epic works in terms of their functions, role and artistic value. The timeliness of the study is determined by insufficient coverage of studies of the phenomena of mythologization and demythologization in the Tatar poetry of the 1960s ‒ 1980s. As part of the study, it is argued, that in the course of mythologizationin Tatar literature an idea of national problems is formed; moreover, a new socio-philosophical concept, that combines the national idea, social and universal philosophy, is developed. Demythologization is aimed at criticizing the totalitarian regime, where the hero’s tragedy is associated with a social and political background. The fundamental approach of the research is the hermeneutic one, directing the receptive activity of the reader towards the analysis of the principles and techniques of the image, the determination of typological similarities and peculiarity of artistic searches, which coincide and have differences in different periods of oral culture and different literary genres. In this vein, features of mythologization and demythologization in Tatar poetry of the 1960s – 1980s are revealed.

26.Kazan Linguistic Landscape: Synchronic Aspect
Elena Valerievna Varlamova, Fanuza Harisovna Tarasova, Olga Sergeevna Safonkina
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.94834  Pages 149 - 152
The article considers the features of the organization of the linguistic landscape in the city of Kazan in terms of the representation of Russian, Tatar and foreign languages in a specific time period: July - September 2019. This approach to the description of the linguistic landscape is usually called synchronic. In contrast to the diachronic description of the linguistic landscape, it does not provide information about changes in the functioning of languages, but describes the landscape in the horizontal time plane. The following methods of linguistic space analysis are used in the article: continuous sampling method, linguistic identification method, functional analysis method, typological analysis method, statistical calculation method. The authors of the article come to the conclusion that the Russian language occupies a leading position as the state language, in second place is the Tatar language, which is the main language in this city. Foreign languages occupy the third place in the linguistic space of the city, however, they are not much behind the Tatar language in quantitative representation. In the linguistic landscape of Kazan, the Tatar language is actively preserved due to the language policy of the region (the maximum number of linguistic signs in Tatar is presented in administrative information units), while foreign languages penetrate the linguistic space of Kazan streets for extra-linguistic reasons: the development of international tourism, the increase in economic and cultural ties with foreign countries, etc.

27.The History of Muslim Religious Thought in Russia: Works on Fiqh Of the Tatar Theologian and Enlightener Shihab Ad-Din Al-Marjani (1818 – 1889)
Ramil Tagirovich Yuzmukhametov, Aida Rinasovna Fattakhova, Yazgul Rinatovna Rakhimova, Markhabo Tukhtasunovna Rajabova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.42204  Pages 153 - 157
The article discusses the works on Fiqh of the famous Tatar theologian and enlightener of the 19th century Shihab ad-Din al-Marjani (1818-1889). In his works, Shihab ad-din al-Mardjani, in particular, discusses almost all aspects of Islamic law. In our article, we showed two examples: how Mardjani discusses the names of Muslims, and the authenticity of the tafsirs (interpretation) of the Qur’an. These examples show the author’s deep knowledge of the whole spectrum of Shariah problems as a whole, as well as each issue individually, with a deep study of sources on the Muslim law, the author’s judgments regarding the reliability of a certain source, and the desire to comply with Islamic law carefully, as it is spelled out in sacred texts of Islam. Marjani’s thoughts are relevant in our time, since this theologian, in interpreting the provisions of the Sharia, primarily relies on the textual sources such as the Qur'an and the Sunnah, thus being a supporter of ‘scholastic Islam’. The purpose of this work is to identify the prominent role of Shihab ad-Din al-Marjani in the development of the Fiqh science among Kazan Tatars and Muslims of Russia and of the world as a whole. To do this, it is necessary to review his works on Fiqh and, using concrete examples, to consider the depth of the elaboration of each issue under consideration in terms of attracting reliable sources according to Sharia, as well as the author’s ability to discourse, analyze and draw right conclusions.

28.The semantic-cognitive comparative analysis of “worldviews” in the process of professional texts’ translation
Irina Telezhko, Kurilenko Victoria Borisovna, Yulia Biryukova, Oxana Chernova
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.93042  Pages 158 - 166
Every language has its own worldview, which carries its own idea of reality. In this regard, the translators while translating the texts often have difficulties in the transmission of the cultural specificity of the language of the specialty because they can’t correlate the social and cultural "images" of the native culture with "images" of the culture of the target language. The interpreter needs to be able to identify and distinguish the different cultural objects that he has to translate. To ensure mental operations of this kind, concepts are created in the language. An experienced translator should be able to conceptualize any concept that causes difficulties for him. The article provides a semantic and cognitive analysis of the linguistic and cultural concept "Ordnung", which is of cultural importance for the German geological discourse. The strategy of semantic-cognitive analysis is carried out in several stages: 1)сonstructing the nominative field of the concept; 2) analysis and description of the semantics of language means included in the nominative field of the concept “Ordnung” in German geological discourse; 3) cognitive interpretation of the results of describing the semantics of language means – identifying cognitive features that form the concept “Ordnung” as a mental unit; 4) description of the concept “Ordnung” content in German geological discourse as a list of cognitive features. This analysis allows us to identify the national specificity of the concept representation, which is manifested in different ways of its verbalization.

29.Design and research activities as an innovative strategy for developing medical students’ self-presentation skills
Raisa Arzumanova, Yulia Gosteva
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.86570  Pages 167 - 172
The purpose of the article is to formulate and determine ways for students of medical educational institutions to develop self-presentation skills: the importance of these skills is determined by the principles of implementing a competence-based approach to the training modern of specialists and their self-realisation in the labour market.
The analysis of scientific literature and working practice included consideration of the specifics of the organisation of design and research activities at universities as one of the possible directions for the development of competences, research culture and personal qualities of a future doctor; as well as definition, justification and visual representation of the main components of design and research activities as an innovative educational strategy. The questions about the essence and features of self-presentation, the most important components of a developed self-presentation skill, the potential of design and research activities, if the involvement of medical students in design and research activities contribute to the development of their self-presentation skills were asked by the authors.
The authors identified and described the organisational and pedagogical conditions for the implementation of design and research activities as an innovative educational strategy in medical universities.

30.Development of public spaces as a factor of urban competitiveness in the new media reality
Svetlana Morozova, Alexander Kurochkin
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.41196  Pages 173 - 179
The relevance of the study is determined by the unprecedented growth in the context of media reality’s digitalization of the global competition of cities, as reference points for the development of national economies. This competition requires the accumulation of all available resources and, first of all, those that have an impact on the growth of human capital, the acceleration of information exchange and an increase in the creative potential of cities.
One of the important factors in the growth of creative potential is the development of urban public spaces. The authors focus on the fact that the phenomenon of public space is undergoing significant changes in the conditions of a networked, digital society.
In this context, the authors analyze the shifts in the meaning, role and place of urban public spaces in the strategic development of cities in the era of the fourth industrial revolution and increasing their competitiveness using the example of Moscow and St. Petersburg, as the brightest centers of creative development in modern Russia.

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