E-ISSN 2651-2629
Applied Linguistics Research Journal - ALRJournal: 4 (4)
Volume: 4  Issue: 4 - 2020
ORIGINAL RESEARCH
1.Analysis of Learner Uptake in Response to Corrective Feedback in Advanced Foreign Language Classrooms: A Case in the United States
Ching-Hsuan Wu
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.88700  Pages 1 - 29
The article analyzed learner uptake in response to the instructor’s corrective feedback (CF) to investigate its types and distribution in an advanced L2 learning environment. Six second language (L2) learners of Chinese at the Advanced-high level (ACTFL, 2002) participated in the study, and the data set showed 739 participant (n=739) turns in the recording of 480 minutes, 236 of them with at least one non-target-like item. The results revealed a high uptake rate (91%), in which self-repair in response to repetition CF accounted for the most among the ten uptake types, off-target was the most frequent needs-repair type, and same-error and hesitation took place infrequently among advanced learners. In addition, the findings suggested that value of non-learner-generated repair to one’s L2 development was important, and that a high CF rate (86%) was observed even when communication did not breakdown. This study extends the literature in learner uptake in an advanced L2 instructional setting and urges L2 instructors to consider the content of learner uptake as an indicator of immediate linguistic and pedagogical support that learners can use in their L2 advancement.

2.Textual Metafunction and Translation: A Systemic Functional Linguistic Perspective
Elham Rajab Dorri
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.72692  Pages 30 - 40
Systemic functional linguistics has provided a systematic approach to analyze texts. Different strata of Systemic Functional Grammar have shed light on studies. In this paper, the topic has been restricted to one aspect only, i.e. the textual metafunction, which is realized by the thematic structure. Marked thematic structure is the area of differences between source language and target language, which challenge translation process. The present study is the contrastive study of marked thematic structure in English argumentative texts and their Persian translations. It has been benefitted from Shimid's classification of marked thematic structure. The data are extracted from the first 1000 sentences of two English argumentative texts and their translations into Persian. For each kind of marked thematic structure strategies used by translators were identified. It attempts to see what corresponding processes are actually used in Persian translation. The result of the study showed that construction with adjunct fronting posed more challenge for translators than passive sentences or cleft or pseudo-cleft sentences. The results can be useful for everyone who wishes to get familiar with the process of translation, in transferring not only the semantic contents, but also the thematic purports of the source into the target language.

3.The Acquisition of French (L3) Prepositions by Iranian Learners of English
Fatemeh Khezri, Mohammad Hasan Razmi, Ali Akbar Jabbari, Hamideh Ghadaki
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.32032  Pages 41 - 56
Studies in the domain of L3 acquisition have revealed that in the process of L3 acquisition, previously learned languages can be regarded as sources of transfer (Leung, 2005). Therefore, this study attempted to investigate the role of Persian (L1) and English (L2) in French (L3) prepositions in light of three prominent hypotheses (L1 Factor Hypothesis, L2 Status Factor and Cumulative Enhancement Model). To this aim, 40 students majoring in the French literature from Isfahan University were selected. The participants were asked to complete two kinds of tests: Translation Test and Grammaticality Judgment Test (GJT). The findings suggested that during the process of L3 prepositional verb acquisition, it was the L1 and CEM that played a great role. By knowing this, it would be beneficial for teachers, as well as, students to highlight similar prepositional verbs in both French and Persian and improve their learning strategies.

4.The Effect of Concept Mapping and Anticipation Guides on EFL Learners' Reading Comprehension
Fatemeh Hamedi, Seyyed Abdolmajid Tabatabaee Lotfi, Seyyed Amir Hosein Sarkeshikian
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.83997  Pages 57 - 69
Finding a technique that helps the learners become more proficient readers in English is a very important issue. In this research, the effect of two pre-reading activities, namely anticipation guides and concept mapping, were compared on Iranian EFL learners' reading comprehension. For this purpose, 90 EFL learners at elementary level of proficiency in English were chosen based on convenient sampling to take part. Based on the results from Solutions Placement Test of homogenization, they were assigned to three groups of 30 students. Before the treatment, a pretest of Preliminary English Test (PET) was administered. During the treatment, in one of the experimental groups, the concept mapping technique was used as pre-reading activity, in the other experimental group, anticipation guides were used for pre-reading, and in the control group, no pre-reading activity was used. The course took 10 sessions. After the treatment, another PET test was administered as the posttest and the results were compared with the pretest. The results of data analysis (ANOVA) showed that 1) concept mapping had a statistically significant effect on learners’ reading comprehension, 2) anticipation guide had a statistically significant effect on learners’ reading comprehension, and 3) there was no significant difference between the effects of concept mapping and anticipation guide on learners’ reading comprehension. Pedagogical implications for EFL teachers, institutes, materials developers and syllabus designers are also discussed, indicating that pre-reading activities are very important in the process of reading comprehension.

5.A Comparative Study of Taboo Rendition in 3 Dubbed Versions of ‘Deadpool’ Movie: A Case Study of Swearwords
Hamed Beit Saeed, Azadeh Nemati, Mohammad Reza Falahati Qadimi Fumani
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.19480  Pages 70 - 87
Language, besides being a means of expressing thoughts and ideas, can be used to prevent the dissemination of specific ideas, thoughts and ideologies. One relevant example is the taboo, which is rooted in the worldview and beliefs of different nations in a particular category. In fact, taboo-to-taboo translation can, at times, create linguistic and cultural problems. Since audio-visual products are one of the main channels of transmission of culture-based terms such as taboos, the issue of subtitling and dubbing these products is of great importance. The present research is a comparative corpus-based study which intended to examine the translation of a specific category of taboo words, i.e. swearwords, based on Sharifi and Darchinian’s (2009) model. For this purpose, using purposive and availability sampling, three dubbed versions of an American movie namely Deadpool (2016) were selected and compared in terms of the quadratic classification of the aforementioned model. To answer the research questions, frequency and percentage scores as well as Chi-square tests were used. The results of the study indicated that ‘taboo to non-taboo’ (substitution) is the strategy used most frequently by Iranian audio-visual translators to render western taboos into Persian. Another findling was that ‘euphemism’, except for QD1, was also a strategy that Persian translators used to mitigate the tabooness of swearwords.

6.Bidirectionality of Metaphor in Fiction: A Study of English Novels
Mohammad Zohrabi, Nasim Layegh
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.74936  Pages 88 - 99
One of the fundamental pillars of Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT) is that in any metaphorical mapping, the target domain constitutes a rather abstract concept while the source domain is more concrete. This argument entails that metaphors are unidirectional. In line with Kövecses (2010), the principle of unidirectionality of metaphor simply defines the idea that in most everyday metaphors the source and target domains cannot be reversed. In this spirit, the present study investigated aforementioned arguments in two important works of fiction. The materials for the study consisted of Jane Austen’s Persuasion and John Green’s The Fault in Our Stars, and the identification of the metaphorical source and target domains was conducted following the principles of MIPVU. The findings showed a few cases of bidirectional metaphors in the samples. Moreover, some concepts were also identified which had been employed as both target and source domain by the authors. This study might provide some insights into the understanding and analysis of metaphorical language. It can also offer some implications for teaching literature as well as advanced reading and writing to students.

7.Interactional Metadiscourse In Doctoral Thesis Writing: A Study in Kenya
Emily Ayieta Ondondo
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2020.92053  Pages 100 - 113
Scientific writing especially doctoral dissertation writing commands a high level of objectivity, room for new knowledge and involvement of the reader. This is manifested in the way the writers demonstrate commitment and detachment to the claims they make and how they position writer-reader relations. Commitment and detachment in a writer’s claims are linguistically shown by the use of interactional metadiscoursal markers. Interactional metadiscourse markers are, therefore, important metadiscursive resources for writers to mark their epistemic stance and position writer-reader relations. To effectively achieve this, doctoral thesis writers need to use interactional markers appropriately and proportionately. Using a descriptive analytic design and basing on Hyland’s (2005) taxonomy and Kondowe’s (2014) categorization, this study investigated how doctoral students at JOOUST use interactional markers in their doctoral thesis writing. The paper analysed the extent, form, and function of interactional markers in the introduction and discussion sections of doctoral theses deposited at JOOUST library across all disciplines. The results show that the use of interactional markers in doctoral thesis writing among JOOUST students is skewed. Boosting appears recurrently compared to hedging, with the other interactional markers being used minimally. Boosters were used to persuade readers of the validity of claims. Hedges were used to persuade readers of the detachment from the claims made. These findings suggest the need for awareness raising on the usefulness of hedging and boosting devices in moderating the claims made in thesis writing because research theses are academic documents that must adhere strictly to impersonal and formal writing conventions.

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