|1.||Acquisition of Albanian as Second Language by children of Turkish Nationality in Kosovo|
Rrahman Paçarizi, Djellza Tufa
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.07379 Pages 1 - 13
Second language acquisition is one of the central topics in applied linguistics. It is becoming of a a great interest at the era of technology, when children are exposed to different languages alongside their mother tongue. Prizren is one of the cities in Kosovo consisted of mixed population, where Albanian, Turks, Bosnians and Serbs cohabit. Since Albanian population is dominant, children of different ethnic backgrounds are following schools in Albanian language despite the fact that there are schools in their own native languages. Over a period of 30 days, we observed 10 children and extracted the necessary statistics pertaining to our topic. It is worth to mention that the observed children belonged to economically well situated families, with highly educated parents. We observed that the main problems in aqcuiring Albanian language for children of Turkish ethnic background was strong influence of Turkish on grammatical features, since Turkish has different grammar system in comparison with Indo-European languages where Albanian language belongs to. Also, the huge number of borrowings from Turkish into Albanian influenced the use of such a borrowings by Turkish children, while paying efforts to acquire Albanian language.
|2.||Cooperative Principles in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Debate: Grice's Maxims Analysis|
Nur Azmi Laila
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.85057 Pages 14 - 22
This research aimed to analyze the types of maxims of the cooperative principle that were used and also violated in the 2019 Indonesian presidential debate. A descriptive method was applied to examine the research questions. The data of this study were the conversations that fulfilled and violated the cooperative principle based on four maxims of cooperative principles: Maxim of quantity, maxim of relation, maxim of manner, and maxim of quality. The results of this qualitative study revealed that the two maxims violated by the candidates in the 2019 Indonesian presidential debates were the maxim of relevance and maxim of manner. The maxim of manner was the mostly violated maxim by the candidates. The candidates not only violated but also fulfilled the maxims of the cooperative principle. They fulfilled the maxim of relevance, maxim of manner, and maxim of quality. Furthermore, the maxim of quality was the maxim that was mostly fulfilled by the candidates in the 2019 Indonesian Presidential Debates.
|3.||E-Learning as a Means to Enhance L2 Learners’ Lexical Knowledge and Translation Performance|
Mahmood Hashemian, Maryam Farhang-ju
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.48403 Pages 23 - 34
As vocabulary learning has a key role in L2, investigating innovative techniques to enhance L2 learners’ vocabulary knowledge merits further attention. Thus, this study investigated the effects of e-learning on Iranian intermediate L2 learners’ lexical knowledge and translation performance. Fifty-three intermediate L2 learners at Shahrekord University (Iran), selected via convenience sampling, participated in the study. Participants were assigned into 2 experimental (n = 27) and control (n = 26) groups. In the next step, vocabulary and idiom and translation performance tests were given to the participants prior to the treatment as their pretests. One week after the pretests, the experimental group received 12 treatment sessions through Skype. At the end of the study, the posttests (vocabulary and idiom and translation performance tests) were administered to the participants. Then, 2 independent samples t tests were run to see if the participants’ lexical knowledge and translation performance had improved as a result of the treatment. Results revealed that e-learning had positive effects on the participants’ L2 lexical knowledge and translation performance. In light of the findings of this study, educational policymakers, syllabus designers, and materials developers for lexical knowledge and translation studies are recommended to deem e-learning as an effective element in both academic and upcoming career success.
|4.||Language Proficiency and Appropriateness of Using the Refusal Speech Act by Iranian EFL Learners|
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.64936 Pages 35 - 45
The present study was an attempt to investigate the effect of language proficiency on production of the refusal speech act among Iranian EFL learners. Using the Preliminary English Test, the participants were divided into high and low groups based on their proficiency scores. To examine their pragmatics competence, data were collected through an open-ended questionnaire in the form of Discourse Completion Task (DCT) consisting of 12 refusal situations. Their responses were scored by two English native teachers based on Hudson, Detmer, and Browns’ (1995) analytical rating criteria considering four aspects of appropriacy, i.e. the ability to use correct speech act, correct expressions, amount of information, and level of politeness. The findings of the statistical analysis showed language proficiency was not the influential factor in the degree of pragmatic knowledge which indicated that high EFL learners did not perform significantly better than their low counterparts in pragmatic production. These findings underscore that teaching pragmatics and cultural behaviors of the target language in language classrooms might build up pragmatic competence of language learners.
|5.||The Genealogy of the Theater of Absurd in Jarry's Ubu the King|
Farid Parvaneh, Sanam Fakhriazar
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.27146 Pages 46 - 52
Alfred Jarry’s revolutionary play, Ubu the King, has been a source of muse for various literary and theatrical movements including Dadaism, Surrealism, and the Theater of the Absurd for relatively a long time. The thematic and formal construction of this play owes much to the principles of the Theater of the Absurd. This paper follows two major steps. It first attempts to show the traces of Shakespeare in Ubu the King, and accordingly discusses Jarry’s probable intentions of linking this play to those of Shakespeare. It then goes on to enlarge the facets of absurdity and grotesque in the play. This paper aims at illustrating the absurd elements in the play first by drawing some examples from the text, and secondly by elaborating on the social reaction toward the production of Ubu the King. In other words, if absurdity is the outcome of the confrontation of a rational being with a system that defies to provide any rational answer, it aims at answering the question of Jarry’s position as one of the pioneers of absurd drama under the influence of William Shakespeare.
|6.||The Impact of Literature Teaching Techniques on the Learners’ Performance on Academic Reading Course Tests|
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.85047 Pages 53 - 62
Literature and its genres have always been impressive in the process of teaching and learning alongside the natural function of literature and literary research. Although second or foreign language teaching has received great attention by applied linguists, recently there has been a growing concern for the development of literature teaching methods too. This paper basing its approach on posttest only control group design has dealt with the introduction of Carter and Long’s (1991) literature teaching approaches in a teacher training college in Iran to one hundred to-be-teacher students, aged between 18-24, divided into four experimental groups, to examine the effectiveness of these literature teaching approaches on the students’ performance on academic reading course test. The statistical analysis of the results revealed that the performance of the three experimental groups was significantly higher than the control group. The results further revealed that the performance of Personal Growth Model was significantly higher than the other two models. The difference between the performance of the Culture Model group with that of the Language Model was not that much significant. The incorporation of literature teaching approaches in the skill-based academic courses is highly suggested. Among the many approaches and models developed, the Personal Growth Model by Carter and Long (1991) which proved to be working well with the academic students and their performance on reading skill course and may work well with other language skills too is suggested for the deployment in the process of teaching elsewhere and with other learners.