|1.||Trilingual Code-switching in Hong Kong|
Ka Long Roy Chan
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.22932 Pages 1 - 14
The present study is a follow-up study on Chan (2018a) which examined a new code-switching form in Hong Kong called trilingual code-switching. Previous studies on the code-switching in Hong Kong focused mainly on bilingual code-switching between Cantonese and English, yet Chanís (2018a) ethnolinguistic study suggested that there was a new form of trilingual code-switching among Cantonese, English and Putonghua arisen in Hong Kong because of the increasing contact with mainland China as well as the introduction of Putonghua in the school curriculum. By analyzing the quantitative and qualitative data from sixty university students collected through an online survey, the present study revealed Hongkongersí view on three language uses, including the use of pure code, bilingual code-switching and trilingual code-switching. The result showed that trilingual code-switching exists in Hong Kong with a low acceptance in Hong Kong. Also, the research showed how bilingual code-switching is linked to a Hong Kong identity.
|2.||An Investigation into Iranian High School Studentsí Use of Request Speech Acts|
Vahid Panahzadeh, Bita Asadi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.50479 Pages 15 - 23
The recent advances in technology and increased opportunity for second language (L2) learners to communicate with native speakers make learning pragmatic competence and principles of appropriate language use indispensable to successful language acquisition. In view of the aforesaid fact, the present study set out to explore the most frequent strategy used by Iranian English as a foreign language (EFL) learners regarding the speech act of request and examine the effectiveness of the Iranian mainstream high school textbooks in developing pragmatic competence and language appropriacy. The target population of the study comprised a total of 142 male and female high school students. To tap the data relevant to the learnersí pragmatic competence, a Written Discourse Completion Task (WDCT) was devised for the speech act of request. Itís worth noting that while the original version of WDCT was in English, it was translated into Persian in order to come up with more illustrative and dependable results. The validity of the both versions were checked before their administrations. The findings of the study revealed that though the females proved to be better users of indirect strategies than males, the majority of individuals had problem making appropriate requests in terms of the social status and power of the interlocutors.
|3.||A Survey of High Schools English Textbooks in Terms of Using Varying Types of Speech Acts|
Ehsan Namaziandost, Arash hashemifardnia, Esmail Hosseini
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.74429 Pages 24 - 32
Although English textbooks are regarded as a crucial part in English language teaching programs, they have been criticized for not offering classroom learnerís sufficient opportunity for learning authentic language (Vellenga, 2004). This is because, instead of making use of language samples that native speakers actually produce, many textbooks have drawn on native speakersí intuition about language use, which might not always be reliable. This study investigated the use of speech in conversation parts of Iranian Junior High School English Textbooks (Prospect One, Prospect Two, and Prospect Three) which are usually popular in Iranian language schools and institutions. To this end, the researchers selected and counted all speech acts to see which speech acts were more frequently used based on through Searleís (1976) speech act model. After taking percentage and frequency, Chi-square was also used due to the nominal nature of the data. The results indicated that Assertives and Declaratives were, respectively, the most and the least frequently used speech acts in the Prospect Books. The results of Chi-square test revealed that the speech acts were not distributed equally in the Prospect Books. The findings of this study can assist the material designers to include different types of speech acts in high school English textbooks in order to help the EFL learners develop their communicative and pragmatic knowledge.
|4.||Epenthesis in the Production of English Consonant Clusters by Tunisian EFL Learners|
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.87487 Pages 33 - 44
The production of English consonant clusters by L2 speakers, whose native languages do not have a complex syllable structure, is often reported to be challenging. Unlike most varieties of Arabic, Tunisian Arabic (TA) disposes of a flexible syllable structure that allows two consonant clusters in different word positions. The present study explores the production of English consonant clusters by L2 speakers of English whose native language is TA. It also seeks to examine the effect of presence of epenthesis on their perceived comprehensibility and degree of foreign accent. A conversation containing target words with different types of clusters and in different positions was read aloud and role played by English major Tunisian students. An auditory and acoustic analysis of the target items was performed and results revealed that these English learners used epenthesis with three consonant clusters only. Native speakers of English rated their comprehensibility and their degree of foreign accent. Results showed that while the comprehensibility of these learners was unaffected by their use of epenthesis in target words, their degree of foreign accent highly was. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to second language phonological acquisition and pronunciation learning and teaching research.
|5.||Lexical Reiteration Instruction through CLIL and L2 Composition Writing of High School Students|
Mojgan Rashtchi, Maryam Baniardalani
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.44154 Pages 45 - 58
This study examined the efficacy of Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) as a context for teaching writing to Iranian high school girls. The researchers of the present study assumed that teaching lexical reiteration could contribute to writing coherent compositions. Lexical reiteration was manipulated through explicit and implicit instructions. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection procedures were employed. Thirty students were randomly assigned to two groups of Explicit Instruction Content group (EIC) and Implicit Instruction Content group (IIC). The participants had been grouped in English classes based on the Preliminary English Test (PET) at the beginning of the academic year by the school administrators, and therefore they were homogeneous. The writing pre-test ensured the homogeneity of the groups regarding the writing ability. During the treatment, which took ten 90-minute sessions in five weeks, EIC was exposed to the explicit reiteration instruction through teacher explanations, reading, and writing, and IIC engaged in the implicit instruction through narrow reading and writing compositions. The writing post-test showed the outperformance of EIC. The interviews with EIC group explored their views regarding employing lexical cohesive devices. The analysis of the interviews provided some understandings about the efficacy of the explicit teaching of lexical reiteration in enhancing coherence in EFL high school studentsí compositions.
|6.||Influential Factors of Motivations and Perceptions of Teaching among Teacher Students|
Manoocher Jafarigohar, Mohammad Zeinali
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.63625 Pages 59 - 69
Teachersí ability to motivate students can be a function of their motivation and perception of teaching. Hence, identification of the influential factors incenting teacher students to embark on teacher education programs and to become teachers is of much significance to teacher trainers as well as education administrators. The review of the related studies crystalizes that teacher studentsí motivation and perceptions of teaching is an under-explored area. Thus, the present study was aimed at delineating these factors in an EFL context through comparing male and female senior and freshman teacher studentsí motivations for becoming teachers employing FIT-choice scale adapted and validated by Watt and Richardson (2007, 2008).Two hundred senior and freshman teacher students majoring in primary education in Farhangian University shaped the body of participants. The results of t-tests indicated significant difference between senior and freshman teacher students in terms of time for family, job transferability, and prior teaching/learning experience. The results also revealed that male and female students have the same perceptions of teaching though male students outperformed the female ones in ability, job security, and time for family as three components of motivations.