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ALRJournal: 3 (3)

Volume: 3  Issue: 3 - 2019

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
1.Corrective Feedback and Learner Uptake by English Learners of Chinese in Advanced Second Language Classrooms in the USA
Ching-Hsuan Wu
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.08370  Pages 1 - 21
If advanced second language (L2) learners wish to improve precision in their use of L2, such as word choice and grammatical accuracy, can instructor’s corrective feedback (CF) help? Previous studies (e.g., Coyle & Larios, 2014; Lee & Lyster, 2016) have shown that CF plays a facilitative role in one’s second language acquisition at the beginning and intermediate levels of L2 learning. However, what is not yet clear is the effect of CF at advanced levels. The present study reports two characteristics of CF and learner uptake in an advanced Chinese as a second language content-based instructional setting: (1) types and frequency of CF; and (2) the effect of different types of CF on learner uptake. Ten subject-matter lessons with twelve participants were observed. The data were analyzed using Lyster and Ranta’s (1997) taxonomy of instructors’ CF strategies and learner uptake. The results indicate that metalinguistic feedback was the most dominant type of CF and recast was least used and that explicit correction was most effective in eliciting learner repair and clarification request was least effective. The findings suggest that the critical conditions for repairs to take place in the advanced language classrooms include explicitness and salience of CF, learners’ awareness of the intention of CF, their understanding of the linguistic nature of the correction, and their possession of the language skills necessary to fix the mistakes. Furthermore, the results have implications for the field of Teacher Education to consider options in preparing L2 instructors to offer effective CF at advanced levels.

2.Developing Understanding Through EFL Students’ Translation of Answers on Essay Tests
Hamidreza Mahboudi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.54254  Pages 22 - 30
Contrastive analysis course is a one-semester course now widely taught at the undergraduate level in Iran. EFL students have different types of goal orientations, but all teachers agree that student success depends on learning concepts rather than memorization of facts. Nevertheless, there is a problem with students’ belief that success in CA relies on memorization. This popular fallacy causes students to take CA course with the wrong attitude. The sample composed of 30 translation students (6 males and 24 females) studying at the University College of Rub-bi Rashid, Tabriz, Iran. Two essay tests of contrastive analysis were administered. The first test included five limited essay questions along with the requested translations of answers. The second test included the same questions without a translation request and was administered two weeks later. The collected data were analyzed via analysis of paired sample t-test, and the results revealed a significant difference in the scores of students on the first test (M=9.52, SD=3.095) and the second test (M=11.17, SD=3.029); t=-9.492, p = 0.000. It was concluded that fear of translation request prevents students from mindlessly reciting course content, and thus, develops understanding and scores. The results of this study promise pedagogical implications for EFL practitioners, teachers as well as test developers.

3.The Comparative Study of the Effects of Shadowing and Note–taking on EFL Students ʼ Listening Comprehension Improvement
Forough Ghalavandi, Morteza Bakhtiarvand
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.52824  Pages 31 - 40
The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of shadowing and note-taking on listening comprehension of EFL learners. To achieve the purpose of the study, 85 female EFL learners at the pre-intermediate level of proficiency with the age range of 18-35 were selected out of the initial 120 participants based on their performance on a piloted PET. During a five-week instruction period (twice a week), both classes practiced listening comprehension for 45 minutes through shadowing and not-taking activity (following Kadota & Tamai’s Model, 2004). The results of the independent samples t-test demonstrated that there was no significant difference between listening posttest scores of shadowing and not-taking groups. The study provides implications for both theory and pedagogy.

4.The Effect of a Socio-cultural Factor on the Organization of Communication Structure among Iranian Teenagers in EFL Context
Maryam Hadi, Sorayya Behrouzi Zad
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.94914  Pages 41 - 50
Whether language acquisition takes place in formal or informal language learning situations, language learners are in need of exposure and access to a kind of language input (Gass, 1997). Thus, this study investigated the effect of watching films as a socio-cultural factor on EFL learners’ informal speaking proficiency. Thirty homogenous advanced female learners out of the pool of 50 were selected through International English Language Testing System (IELTS) in Urmia, Iran, and randomly assigned to two groups of 15 learners, one as the experimental group and the other as the control group. The researcher prepared a test of 160 informal expressions and words extracted from 6 American movies and administered it to a group of participants similar to the sample of the present study. At last, 140 unknown expressions and words were selected. Then, the researcher gave the selected expressions and words to the participants as pretest to write their Persian or English translation. During the treatment period, the experimental group was exposed to movies inside and outside the classroom for two terms. However, the control group was provided with non-videos program, that is, the teacher in that class followed the syllabus for advanced level. At the end of the treatment, the same test used in pre-test was used as the post-test to check the enhancement of the learners’ informal speaking proficiency. The results of an independent-samples t-test revealed that the experimental group outperformed the control group regarding their informal speaking proficiency. The implications are discussed in terms of the advantages of using films in EFL contexts.

5.The Effects of Guided-discovery, Self-discovery, and Situational-presentation Techniques on Learning Conditional Sentences in English
Fahimeh Esmailzadeh, Seyyed Abdolmajid Tabatabaee Lotfi, Narjes Ashari Tabar
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.27247  Pages 51 - 63
Learner-centered methods of language learning/teaching have attracted considerable attention from many researchers for years. This study set out to examine the significant differences among the effects of three inductive techniques of guided-discovery learning, self-discovery learning and situational-presentation technique on learning Type I conditional sentences by Iranian EFL learners of vision 2. To achieve the main purpose, this study employed a pretest and post-test design with a sample of 90 students at the high school level whose homogeneity in language proficiency was checked and followed by a pretest. After three weeks of treatment, the achievements of the groups were examined. The data collected were analyzed through one-way ANCOVA. The results revealed that none of the groups outperformed other groups significantly. Also, the results added support to the view that the three inductive strategies were equally effective in promoting the grammar knowledge of the students. As a whole, the study calls for a prominent place for inductive techniques for designing and implementing teaching methods in grammar classes.

6.The Relationship between Language Learning Strategies and Achievement among EFL University Students
Abdul-Qader Khaleel Mohammed Abdul-Ghafour, Yasser Alrefaee
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.28290  Pages 64 - 83
This study investigated the relationship between language learning strategies and achievement among Yemeni EFL university students. It also identified the differences between high and low achievers in using language learning strategies. Seventy students were randomly selected from the fourth level on the basis of their university scores as high and low achievers. The study adopted the SILL questionnaire developed by Oxford (1990) to collect the data of the study. The obtained data were statistically analyzed through SPSS software. The results of the study showed that the most frequently used strategies of high achievers were meta-cognitive, compensation and cognitive strategies while the least frequently used strategies were affective, memory and social Strategies. On the other hand, the most frequently used strategies of low achievers were meta-cognitive strategies, the strategies entitled “Others” and affective strategies whereas the least frequently used strategies were cognitive, social and memory strategies. The findings also revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between high and low achievers in the overall use of LLSs in favor of high achievers, there were significant differences between high and low achievers in using meta-cognitive, compensation and cognitive strategies in favor of high achievers and there was a positive relationship between the overall use of language learning strategies and students' academic achievement. It was also found that the meta-cognitive and compensation strategies positively correlate with the students' academic achievement. The findings have significant implications for research on LLSs, classroom instruction, materials design, and teacher preparation.

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