|1.||A Critical Review of "New Interchange" Book Series: Advantages and Disadvantages|
Tatsuki Ota, Danielle Sanders
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2018.43434 Pages 1 - 10
Communicative language teaching has been basically regarded as an approach to language teaching and learning than a teaching method. Following the basic tenets of communicative traditions and adapting socialization of language issues, materials developers and syllabus designers have produced ELT textbooks internationally to meet the immediate demand of today’s language learning: Communicative competence. The New Interchange series published by Cambridge University has caught the attention of EFL/ESL learners around the world. The present paper first reviews the fundamental issues commonly referred to in communicative language teaching paradigms and then focus on the major features of the book in terms of its merits and demerits.
|2.||The Narrator and Implied Author in Agatha Christie’s "And Then There Were None": A Reader-oriented Approach|
Sayyed Rahim Moosavinia, Alireza Khaleghpanah
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2018.02886 Pages 11 - 19
The problem of distinguishing between narrator and implied author has always been challenging in the field of narratology. Implied author is generally defined as the ideology which rules the intellectual realm of the society in which the author lives and the narrator or in one sense the voice which narrates the story. The narrator could exchange position from a third person-omniscient or -limited omniscient point of view to a first person one narrating through the eyes of one of the characters in the story. In this paper, we try to examine the ruling ideology through the act of narration of the story and thus assess the degree of being the same of the narrator and the implied author as representing the ideology ruling the narration. An attempt here is to show that the narrator has been, to a high degree, inflicted with ideology of British complacency and pride, biblical penetration and racism. A biographical and inter-textual study of Agatha Christie also shows that she is known for her somehow belittling attitude toward the colonized people or as called today, the third world. In her Death on the Nile; for example, Poirot’s arrogance while dealing with Egyptians is palpable.
|3.||The Impact of Productive Discipline Strategies on Iranian EFL Learners’ Second Language Anxiety and Language Achievement|
Parisa Abedi, Fariba Rahimi Esfahani
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2018.09719 Pages 20 - 31
The present study was dedicated to investigating whether productive discipline strategies are effective strategies in order to reduce second language anxiety of Iranian students and improve their language achievements. To achieve the study's aim, a sample test of KET was administered to 45 students as a homogenizing test. Based on the results, the participants whose scores fell between 1 SD above and below the mean were chosen as the participants of the study and were then randomly assigned to one control and one experimental group. Those who were in the experimental group received productive strategies. The students in the control group were controlled by the traditional discipline strategy method. At the outset of the study, a pre-test was given to the participants to ensure that there were no significant difference between the experimental and control groups regarding the variable under investigation. This study was carried out during a 40-hour course spread over 2 months. In addition, the participants were asked to fill a Second Language Anxiety Questionnaire (Howritzs, 1986) and also a 24-item questionnaire of classroom discipline (Lewis, 2001). At the end of the term, all participants were tested on their achievement in the second language by a posttest similar to the pre-test. Moreover, their second language anxiety was measured through the above-mentioned questionnaires. As a whole, it was concluded that the employment of the productive strategies contributes to the improvement of students’ second language achievement and reduction of their second language anxiety.
|4.||Developing EAP Graduate Students Research Article Writing Skills through Genre-based Pedagogy|
Morteza Bakhtiarvand, Ali Roshani, Jalal Armion
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2018.69875 Pages 32 - 46
The current study examined the impact of explicit genre-based instruction on the writing ability of the graduate students in article writing skills. The participants were 60 graduate students in two groups of 30 majored in soft and hard sciences. Swales’ (1990) model was introduced to the participants in the study, applying a pre-test/post-test research design. The groups were instructed over a time period of three months followed by a post-test. To make sure of the normality of distribution of the pre- and post-test scores, a Kolmogorov Smirnov test was performed. In addition, to compare the results of pre-test and post-test, pair wised samples t-tests were run on the results of both pre-test and post-test. Results indicated that explicit instruction was effective in developing the participants in both branches of science to promote their command of developing well organized academic articles characterized with the four phase macro structure of Introduction, Method, Result, and Discussion (IMRD) which was the target genre organization in academic papers.
|5.||Pictologics and its Effects on English Vocabulary Learning of Malaysian Students with Reference to Schema Theory|
Abolfazl Shirban Sasi
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2018.10820 Pages 47 - 60
This study investigated the effects of Pictologics (PLS) method- developed by the Author- on English vocabulary learning by Malaysian year six primary school students (N=118, p≤.05). It also examined the probable gender differences (N=54, p≤.01). In a pretest-posttest control-group design, students in two public schools in Penang, Malaysia, participated in this experiment. They were almost equally divided into the treatment group which received their training with PLS, and the control group that received their training via a conventional method. A 50-item TOEFL vocabulary test was the instrument. The data revealed that students under PLS obtained a significantly higher gain score in the vocabulary test. However, the difference between the vocabulary gain score between the male and female students in the treatment group was not significant. Briefly introducing PLS in light of the schema theory, this paper tries encouraging teachers to be trained, and students to be taught to sufficiently use the PLS techniques to enhance teaching and learning English vocabulary.
|6.||Child Language Acquisition and Development. Saxton, M. 2017. Second edition. SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd.|
doi: 10.14744/alrj.2019.00719 Pages 61 - 63
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